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Christianity , and Greek Mythology pt2

2020.06.24 01:46 Apollo_Frog Christianity , and Greek Mythology pt2

Deucalion/Noah
The Deucalion legend as told by the Bibliotheca has some similarity to other deluge myths such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the story of Noah's Ark. The Titan Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's "ark" landing on Mount Othrys in Thessaly. Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in Argolis, later called Nemea. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus.

And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
3 And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
5 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
6 And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
7 And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.

"There [in Achaea, i.e. Greece] is a land encircled by lofty mountains, rich in sheep and in pasture, where Prometheus, son of Iapetus, begat goodly Deucalion, who first founded cities and reared temples to the immortal gods, and first ruled over men. This land the neighbours who dwell around call Haemonia
The flood in the time of Deucalion was caused by the anger of Zeus, ignited by the hubris of the Pelasgians. So Zeus decided to put an end to the Bronze Age. According to this story, Lycaon, the king of Arcadia, had sacrificed a boy to Zeus, who was appalled by this savage offering. Zeus unleashed a deluge, so that the rivers ran in torrents and the sea flooded the coastal plain, engulfed the foothills with spray, and washed everything clean. Deucalion, with the aid of his father Prometheus, was saved from this deluge by building a chest.[10] Like the Biblical Noah and the Mesopotamian counterpart Utnapishtim, he uses his device to survive the deluge with his wife, Pyrrha.
The fullest accounts are provided in Ovid's Metamorphoses (8 AD) and in the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus. Deucalion, who reigned over the region of Phthia, had been forewarned of the flood by his father, Prometheus. Deucalion was to build a chest and provision it carefully (no animals are rescued in this version of the Flood myth), so that when the waters receded after nine days, he and his wife Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus, were the one surviving pair of humans. Their chest touched solid ground on Mount Parnassus,or Mount Etna in Sicily,or Mount Athos in Chalkidiki,or Mount Othrys in Thessaly.

But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.
The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
Make thee an ark
17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.
And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged; 4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
20 And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
21 And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

LucifePrometheus Lucifer, which means “bearer of light” or “morning star,”
Prometheus himself is an immortal god, the friend of the human race, the giver of fire, the inventor of the useful arts, an omniscient seer, an heroic sufferer, who is overcome by the superior power of Zeus, but will not bend his inflexible mind. Although he himself belonged to the Titans, he is nevertheless represented as having assisted Zeus against the Titans (Prom. 218), and he is further said to have opened the head of Zeus when the latter gave birth to Athena (Apollod. i. 3. § 6). But when Zeus succeeded to the kingdom of heaven, and wanted to extirpate the whole race of man, the place of which he proposed to give to quite a new race of beings, Prometheus prevented the execution of the scheme, and saved the human race from destruction (Prom. 228, 233). He deprived them of their knowledge of the future, and gave them hope instead (248, &c.). He further taught them the use of fire, made them acquainted with architecture, astronomy, mathematics, the art of writing, the treatment of domestic animals, navigation, medicine, the art of prophecy, working in metal, and all the other arts (252, 445, &c., 480, &c.). But, as in all these things he had acted contrary to the will of Zeus, the latter ordered Hephaestus to chain him to a rock in Scythia, which was done in the presence of Cratos and Bia, two ministers of Zeus. In Scythia he was visited by the Oceanides; Io also came to him, and he foretold her the wanderings and sufferings which were yet in store for her, as well as her final relief (703, &c.). Hermes then likewise appears, and desires him to make known a prophecy which was of great importance to Zeus, for Prometheus knew that by a certain woman Zeus would beget a son, who was to dethrone his father, and Zeus wanted to have a more accurate knowledge of this decree of fate. But Prometheus steadfastly refused to reveal the decree of fate, whereupon Zeus, by a thunderbolt, sent Prometheus, together with the rock to which he was chained, into Tartarus (Horat. Carm. ii. 18, 35). After the lapse of a long time, Prometheus returned to the upper world, to endure a fresh course of suffering, for he was now fastened to mount Caucasus, and tormented by an eagle, which every day, or every third day, devoured his liver, which was restored again in the night (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1247, &c. iii. 853; Strab. xv. p. 688 ; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 3; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15; Aeschyl. Prom. 1015, &c.). This state of suffering was to last until some other god, of his own accord, should take his place, and descend into Tartarus for him (Prom. 1025). This came to pass when Cheiron, who had been incurably wounded by an arrow of Heracles, desired to go into Hades; and Zeus allowed him to supply the place of Prometheus (Apollod. ii. 5. § 4; comp. Cheiron). According to others, however, Zeus himself delivered Prometheus, when at length the Titan was prevailed upon to reveal to Zeus the decree of fate, that, if he should become by Thetis the either of a son, that son should deprive him of the sovereignty. (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42 ; Apollod. iii. 13. § 5; Hygin. Fab. 54; comp. Aeschyl. Prom. 167, &c. 376.)

There was also an account, stating that Prometheus had created men out of earth and water, at the very beginning of the human race, or after the flood of Deucalion, when Zeus is said to have ordered him and Athena to make men out of the mud, and the winds to breathe life into them (Apollod. i. 7. § 1; Ov. Met. i. 81; Etym. Mag. s. v. Promêtheus). Prometheus is said to have given to men something of all the qualities possessed by the other animals (Horat Carm. i. 16. 13). The kind of earth out of which Prometheus formed men was shown in later times near Panopeus in Phocis (Paus. x. 4. § 3), and it was at his suggestion that Deucalion, when the flood approached, built a ship, and carried into it provisions, that he and Pyrrha might be able to support themselves during the calamity (Apollod. i. 7. § 2). Prometheus, in the legend, often appears in connection with Athena, e. g., he is said to have been punished on mount Caucasus for the criminal love he entertained for her (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1249) and he is further said, with her assistance, to have ascended into heaven, and there secretly to have lighted his torch at the chariot of Helios, in order to bring down the fire to man (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42). At Athens Prometheus had a sanctuary in the Academy, from whence a torch-race took place in honour of him

The following is an outline of the legends related of him by the ancients. Once in the reign of Zeus, when gods and men were disputing with one another at Mecone (afterwards Sicyon, Schol. ad Pind. Nem. ix. 123), Prometheus, with a view to deceive Zeus and rival him in prudence, cut up a bull and divided it into two parts : he wrapped up the best parts and the intestines in the skin, and at the top he placed the stomach, which is one of the worst parts, while the second heap consisted of the bones covered with fat. When Zeus pointed out to him how badly he had made the division, Prometheus desired him to choose, but Zeus, in his anger, and seeing through the stratagem of Prometheus, chose the heap of bones covered with the fat. The father of the gods avenged himself by withholding fire from mortals, but Prometheus stole it in a hollow tube (ferula, narthêx, Aeschyl. Prom. 110). Zeus now, in order to punish men, caused Hephaestus to mould a virgin, Pandora, of earth, whom Athena adorned with all the charms calculated to entice mortals; Prometheus himself was put in chains, and fastened to a pillar, where an eagle sent by Zeus consumed in the daytime his liver, which, in every succeeding night, was restored again. Prometheus was thus exposed to perpetual torture, but Heracles killed the eagle and delivered the sufferer, with the consent of Zeus, who thus had an opportunity of allowing his son to gain immortal fame (Hes. Theog. 521, &c., Op. et Dies, 47, &c. ; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15; Apollod. ii. 5. § 11). Prometheus had cautioned his brother Epimetheus against accepting any present from Zeus, but Epimetheus, disregarding the advice, accepted Pandora, who was sent to him by Zeus, through the mediation of Hermes. Pandora then lifted the lid of the vessel in which the foresight of Prometheus had concealed all the evils which might torment mortals in life. Diseases and sufferings of every kind now issued forth, but deceitful hope alone remained behind (Hes. Op. et Dies, 83, &c.; comp. Horat. Carm. i. 3. 25, &c.). This is an outline of the legend about Prometheus, as contained in the poems of Hesiod.
According to the Theogony of the Bibliotheca, Prometheus moulded men out of water and earth and gave them fire which, unknown to Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel. When Zeus learned of it, he ordered Hephaestus to nail Prometheus to Mount Caucasus, a Scythian mountain. Prometheus was nailed to the mountain and kept bound for many years. Every day an eagle swooped on him and devoured the lobes of his liver, which grew by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus paid for the theft of fire until Heracles afterwards released him.
Prometheus had a son Deucalion. He, reigning in the regions about Phthia, married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the first woman fashioned by the gods. And when Zeus would destroy the men of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by the advice of Prometheus constructed a chest, and having stored it with provisions he embarked in it with Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from heaven flooded the greater part of Greece, so that all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to the high mountains in the neighbourhood and Peloponnesus was overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the chest over the sea for nine days and as many nights, drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain ceased, he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. And Zeus sent Hermes to him and allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose to get men.
At the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and threw them over his head, and the stones Deucalion threw became men, and the stones Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were called metaphorically people (Laos) from laas, "a stone." And Deucalion had children by Pyrrha, first Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus, and third a daughter Protogonia, who became the mother of Aethlius by Zeus. Hellen had Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus by a nymph Orseis. Those who were called Greeks he named Hellenes after himself, and divided the country among his sons. Xuthus received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus and Ion the Achaeans and lonians derive their names. Dorus received the country over against Peloponnese and called the settlers Dorians after himself.
Plato, Protagoras 320c - 322a (trans. Jowett) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : "Once upon a time there were gods only, and no mortal creatures. But when the time came that these also should be created, the gods fashioned them out of earth and fire and various mixtures of both elements in the interior of the earth; and when they were about to bring them into the light of day, they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them, and to distribute to them severally their proper qualities. Epimetheus said to Prometheus : ‘Let me distribute, and do you inspect.’
This was agreed, and Epimetheus made the distribution [of claws and fur and other attributes] . . . Thus did Epimetheus, who, not being very wise, forgot that he had distributed among the brute animals all the qualities which he had to give-and when he came to man, who was still unprovided, he was terribly perplexed. Now while he was in this perplexity, Prometheus came to inspect the distribution, and he found that the other animals were suitably furnished, but that man alone was naked and shoeless, and had neither bed nor arms of defence. The appointed hour was approaching when man in his turn was to go forth into the light of day; and Prometheus, not knowing how he could devise his salvation, stole the mechanical arts of Hephaistos (Hephaestus) and Athene (Athena), and fire with them."
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
Also I cleared their vision to discern signs from flames,which were obscure before this. Enough about these arts. Now as to the benefits to men that lay concealed beneath the earth--bronze, iron, silver, and gold--who would claim to have discovered them before me? No one, I know full well, unless he likes to babble idly. Hear the sum of the whole matter in the compass of one brief word--every art possessed by man comes from Prometheus." Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 441 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.)
And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.
God bestowed upon Moses a copper serpent that was to be attached to a stick and used for curative purposes. The mythical Greek character Hermes also carried a serpent stick called the “Caduceus” that was divinely bestowed upon him, and which became the worldwide symbol of the medical profession. . But, of course, it is also true that Moses had another “serpent stick” that he carried on his missions to bring God’s messages to the Pharaoh.
We are told by Jewish sources such as the writer Eupolemus, who wrote about 150 BC, that the alphabet was invented by Moses while, according to Greek sources, the same alphabet was invented by Hermes. The Egyptian Hermes -- whom they called “Thoth” -- is credited with inventing hieroglyphic writing while the Babylonian Hermes, whom they called “Nebo,” is credited with inventing cuneiform writing. Nebo, a word that means the “Prophet,” was a common nickname for Moses, and when Moses died he was buried upon Mount Pisgah which is also called, no doubt in memory of Moses, Mount Nebo.
Needless to say Moses was a prolific writer of sacred texts. In this regard Hermes was apparently no slouch either. So-called Hermetic books dealing with the religion of Egypt were mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Porphyry, and Jamblichus. Since Clement even says that the books of Hermes were carried by the Egyptians in religious processions, one surely wonders if they were kept in an ark like the law of Moses during the religious processions of the Israelites. However well known these Hermetic writings were in ancient times, it wasn’t until the middle of the 15th century that some of these previously lost Hermetic texts had supposedly been found in the libraries of the Byzantine Empire. Suspect though they are, these books are accredited to the semi-mythical figure named Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest) whom the Gnostics insist, while not being Moses himself, was a contemporary of his. an ever present characteristic of any image of Hermes is his petasos, a cap which featured a wide circular brim. The fact that this petasos looks, even to the casual observer, remarkably like the halo of a Christian saint may be a clue to it‘s origin. For the corona of Moses, which is Scripturally attested to at Exodus 34:30 ("and when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come near him"), probably was represented pictorially as a circle around his head and, therefore, more than likely served as the origin of the petasos of Hermes.
Hermes also had another form of headgear that was intended to hide him, known as the cap of darkness or the helmet of invisibility. We know this because, according to Hyginus from his Astronomica (2.12), he once loaned it to Perseus: “Perseus ... received from Hermes, ... petasos, and, in addition, a helmet which kept its wearer from being seen ... the helmet of Hades (the Unseen One)...” Moses also had a headdress that he wore for the purpose of hiding his face. His corona was frightening to people so he used a veil to conceal it, as explained in the book of Exodus at 34:33: "And until Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face."
Hermes is often depicted as wearing winged sandals, but the Greeks would certainly know enough not to take this literally. The Greeks would understand that traveling upon wings was merely symbolic and meant nothing more than going swiftly. Moses was sent to deliver the Israelites upon eagles wings as at Exodus 19:4: "You have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself."
Casting of Lots Among the Greeks Hermes was considered to be the inventor of casting lots as a method of divination, but Moses also instructed the Hebrews, at a very early date, in the use of lots to divine the will of God. The iconoclastic Moses taught that no images should be made and, accordingly, there is some evidence that Hermes too was at first an iconoclast.
The name of Hermes originated in the Greek word “herma” meaning a “stone heap” -- probably from the custom of erecting a “herm” consisting of an upright stone surrounded at its base by a heap of smaller stones. These unpretentious monuments were often used as landmarks for travelers or to mark territorial boundaries. A mythical origin for these stone heaps may also be understood for, to quote from the Etymologicum Magnum, “when Hermes killed Argos, he was brought to trial by the gods. They acquitted him, and in doing so each threw his voting-pebble at his feet. Thus a heap of stones grew up around him.”
The point here being that the more recent images of Hermes result from apostasies of his earliest teachings, and that the original icon of Hermes, namely, the modest stone heap, was indeed one that would have been acceptable to even Israel himself. Notice Genesis 31:45-46: "And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap."
Moses taught that one out of every seven days was to be revered as holy and called the Sabbath, while Hermes also took one day out of the seven, calling it Wednesday after his name.
In fact, this was noticed thousands of years ago -- at least as early as the second (some think that he could possibly have lived in the third) century BC -- by the Egyptian priest Artapanus who some think may have been Jewish. Eusebius (ix. 27) quoted from a lost book that was written by Artapanus and called Concerning the Jews that said of Moses “he was beloved by the Egyptians, who called him Hermes, (dia tên tôn‘ierôn gramattôn‘ermêneian).” The Greeks themselves seem to corroborate Artapanus by admitting that the Ibis headed Egyptian god Thoth was just another version of their god Hermes. The Greeks even tell a story of how Hermes had come up out of the land of Egypt where he once had lived disguised as an Ibis. Similar to the Hebrew Scriptures the followers of Moses, in the story told by Artapanus, were plagued by poisonous serpents.
However, the Moses of Artapanus (instead of the copper serpent) employed the Ibis to attack the snakes. This was the reason, Artapanus says, for which Moses/Hermes revered the Ibis so. If Hermes was Moses, as Artapanus states, and Moses was a younger contemporary of Inachus the father of Io, as cited by the ancient chronologists, then it is very conceivable that the Hermes in the story of Io’s wanderings is a mythic Greek version of Moses in the Hebrew story about the wandering Jews.
submitted by Apollo_Frog to OccultConspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.06.24 01:45 Apollo_Frog Christianity , and Greek Mythology pt2

Deucalion/Noah
The Deucalion legend as told by the Bibliotheca has some similarity to other deluge myths such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the story of Noah's Ark. The Titan Prometheus advised his son Deucalion to build a chest. All other men perished except for a few who escaped to high mountains. The mountains in Thessaly were parted, and all the world beyond the Isthmus and Peloponnese was overwhelmed. Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, after floating in the chest for nine days and nights, landed on Parnassus. An older version of the story told by Hellanicus has Deucalion's "ark" landing on Mount Othrys in Thessaly. Another account has him landing on a peak, probably Phouka, in Argolis, later called Nemea. When the rains ceased, he sacrificed to Zeus.

And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose.
3 And the Lord said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
5 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
6 And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
7 And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.

"There [in Achaea, i.e. Greece] is a land encircled by lofty mountains, rich in sheep and in pasture, where Prometheus, son of Iapetus, begat goodly Deucalion, who first founded cities and reared temples to the immortal gods, and first ruled over men. This land the neighbours who dwell around call Haemonia
The flood in the time of Deucalion was caused by the anger of Zeus, ignited by the hubris of the Pelasgians. So Zeus decided to put an end to the Bronze Age. According to this story, Lycaon, the king of Arcadia, had sacrificed a boy to Zeus, who was appalled by this savage offering. Zeus unleashed a deluge, so that the rivers ran in torrents and the sea flooded the coastal plain, engulfed the foothills with spray, and washed everything clean. Deucalion, with the aid of his father Prometheus, was saved from this deluge by building a chest.[10] Like the Biblical Noah and the Mesopotamian counterpart Utnapishtim, he uses his device to survive the deluge with his wife, Pyrrha.
The fullest accounts are provided in Ovid's Metamorphoses (8 AD) and in the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus. Deucalion, who reigned over the region of Phthia, had been forewarned of the flood by his father, Prometheus. Deucalion was to build a chest and provision it carefully (no animals are rescued in this version of the Flood myth), so that when the waters receded after nine days, he and his wife Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus, were the one surviving pair of humans. Their chest touched solid ground on Mount Parnassus,or Mount Etna in Sicily,or Mount Athos in Chalkidiki,or Mount Othrys in Thessaly.

But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord.
The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
Make thee an ark
17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee.
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man:
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died.
And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged; 4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.
20 And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
21 And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.

LucifePrometheus Lucifer, which means “bearer of light” or “morning star,”
Prometheus himself is an immortal god, the friend of the human race, the giver of fire, the inventor of the useful arts, an omniscient seer, an heroic sufferer, who is overcome by the superior power of Zeus, but will not bend his inflexible mind. Although he himself belonged to the Titans, he is nevertheless represented as having assisted Zeus against the Titans (Prom. 218), and he is further said to have opened the head of Zeus when the latter gave birth to Athena (Apollod. i. 3. § 6). But when Zeus succeeded to the kingdom of heaven, and wanted to extirpate the whole race of man, the place of which he proposed to give to quite a new race of beings, Prometheus prevented the execution of the scheme, and saved the human race from destruction (Prom. 228, 233). He deprived them of their knowledge of the future, and gave them hope instead (248, &c.). He further taught them the use of fire, made them acquainted with architecture, astronomy, mathematics, the art of writing, the treatment of domestic animals, navigation, medicine, the art of prophecy, working in metal, and all the other arts (252, 445, &c., 480, &c.). But, as in all these things he had acted contrary to the will of Zeus, the latter ordered Hephaestus to chain him to a rock in Scythia, which was done in the presence of Cratos and Bia, two ministers of Zeus. In Scythia he was visited by the Oceanides; Io also came to him, and he foretold her the wanderings and sufferings which were yet in store for her, as well as her final relief (703, &c.). Hermes then likewise appears, and desires him to make known a prophecy which was of great importance to Zeus, for Prometheus knew that by a certain woman Zeus would beget a son, who was to dethrone his father, and Zeus wanted to have a more accurate knowledge of this decree of fate. But Prometheus steadfastly refused to reveal the decree of fate, whereupon Zeus, by a thunderbolt, sent Prometheus, together with the rock to which he was chained, into Tartarus (Horat. Carm. ii. 18, 35). After the lapse of a long time, Prometheus returned to the upper world, to endure a fresh course of suffering, for he was now fastened to mount Caucasus, and tormented by an eagle, which every day, or every third day, devoured his liver, which was restored again in the night (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1247, &c. iii. 853; Strab. xv. p. 688 ; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 3; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15; Aeschyl. Prom. 1015, &c.). This state of suffering was to last until some other god, of his own accord, should take his place, and descend into Tartarus for him (Prom. 1025). This came to pass when Cheiron, who had been incurably wounded by an arrow of Heracles, desired to go into Hades; and Zeus allowed him to supply the place of Prometheus (Apollod. ii. 5. § 4; comp. Cheiron). According to others, however, Zeus himself delivered Prometheus, when at length the Titan was prevailed upon to reveal to Zeus the decree of fate, that, if he should become by Thetis the either of a son, that son should deprive him of the sovereignty. (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42 ; Apollod. iii. 13. § 5; Hygin. Fab. 54; comp. Aeschyl. Prom. 167, &c. 376.)

There was also an account, stating that Prometheus had created men out of earth and water, at the very beginning of the human race, or after the flood of Deucalion, when Zeus is said to have ordered him and Athena to make men out of the mud, and the winds to breathe life into them (Apollod. i. 7. § 1; Ov. Met. i. 81; Etym. Mag. s. v. Promêtheus). Prometheus is said to have given to men something of all the qualities possessed by the other animals (Horat Carm. i. 16. 13). The kind of earth out of which Prometheus formed men was shown in later times near Panopeus in Phocis (Paus. x. 4. § 3), and it was at his suggestion that Deucalion, when the flood approached, built a ship, and carried into it provisions, that he and Pyrrha might be able to support themselves during the calamity (Apollod. i. 7. § 2). Prometheus, in the legend, often appears in connection with Athena, e. g., he is said to have been punished on mount Caucasus for the criminal love he entertained for her (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1249) and he is further said, with her assistance, to have ascended into heaven, and there secretly to have lighted his torch at the chariot of Helios, in order to bring down the fire to man (Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42). At Athens Prometheus had a sanctuary in the Academy, from whence a torch-race took place in honour of him

The following is an outline of the legends related of him by the ancients. Once in the reign of Zeus, when gods and men were disputing with one another at Mecone (afterwards Sicyon, Schol. ad Pind. Nem. ix. 123), Prometheus, with a view to deceive Zeus and rival him in prudence, cut up a bull and divided it into two parts : he wrapped up the best parts and the intestines in the skin, and at the top he placed the stomach, which is one of the worst parts, while the second heap consisted of the bones covered with fat. When Zeus pointed out to him how badly he had made the division, Prometheus desired him to choose, but Zeus, in his anger, and seeing through the stratagem of Prometheus, chose the heap of bones covered with the fat. The father of the gods avenged himself by withholding fire from mortals, but Prometheus stole it in a hollow tube (ferula, narthêx, Aeschyl. Prom. 110). Zeus now, in order to punish men, caused Hephaestus to mould a virgin, Pandora, of earth, whom Athena adorned with all the charms calculated to entice mortals; Prometheus himself was put in chains, and fastened to a pillar, where an eagle sent by Zeus consumed in the daytime his liver, which, in every succeeding night, was restored again. Prometheus was thus exposed to perpetual torture, but Heracles killed the eagle and delivered the sufferer, with the consent of Zeus, who thus had an opportunity of allowing his son to gain immortal fame (Hes. Theog. 521, &c., Op. et Dies, 47, &c. ; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 15; Apollod. ii. 5. § 11). Prometheus had cautioned his brother Epimetheus against accepting any present from Zeus, but Epimetheus, disregarding the advice, accepted Pandora, who was sent to him by Zeus, through the mediation of Hermes. Pandora then lifted the lid of the vessel in which the foresight of Prometheus had concealed all the evils which might torment mortals in life. Diseases and sufferings of every kind now issued forth, but deceitful hope alone remained behind (Hes. Op. et Dies, 83, &c.; comp. Horat. Carm. i. 3. 25, &c.). This is an outline of the legend about Prometheus, as contained in the poems of Hesiod.
According to the Theogony of the Bibliotheca, Prometheus moulded men out of water and earth and gave them fire which, unknown to Zeus, he had hidden in a stalk of fennel. When Zeus learned of it, he ordered Hephaestus to nail Prometheus to Mount Caucasus, a Scythian mountain. Prometheus was nailed to the mountain and kept bound for many years. Every day an eagle swooped on him and devoured the lobes of his liver, which grew by night. That was the penalty that Prometheus paid for the theft of fire until Heracles afterwards released him.
Prometheus had a son Deucalion. He, reigning in the regions about Phthia, married Pyrrha, the daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, the first woman fashioned by the gods. And when Zeus would destroy the men of the Bronze Age, Deucalion by the advice of Prometheus constructed a chest, and having stored it with provisions he embarked in it with Pyrrha. But Zeus by pouring heavy rain from heaven flooded the greater part of Greece, so that all men were destroyed, except a few who fled to the high mountains in the neighbourhood and Peloponnesus was overwhelmed. But Deucalion, floating in the chest over the sea for nine days and as many nights, drifted to Parnassus, and there, when the rain ceased, he landed and sacrificed to Zeus, the god of Escape. And Zeus sent Hermes to him and allowed him to choose what he would, and he chose to get men.
At the bidding of Zeus he took up stones and threw them over his head, and the stones Deucalion threw became men, and the stones Pyrrha threw became women. Hence people were called metaphorically people (Laos) from laas, "a stone." And Deucalion had children by Pyrrha, first Hellen, whose father some say was Zeus, and second Amphictyon, who reigned over Attica after Cranaus, and third a daughter Protogonia, who became the mother of Aethlius by Zeus. Hellen had Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus by a nymph Orseis. Those who were called Greeks he named Hellenes after himself, and divided the country among his sons. Xuthus received Peloponnese and begat Achaeus and Ion by Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, and from Achaeus and Ion the Achaeans and lonians derive their names. Dorus received the country over against Peloponnese and called the settlers Dorians after himself.
Plato, Protagoras 320c - 322a (trans. Jowett) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : "Once upon a time there were gods only, and no mortal creatures. But when the time came that these also should be created, the gods fashioned them out of earth and fire and various mixtures of both elements in the interior of the earth; and when they were about to bring them into the light of day, they ordered Prometheus and Epimetheus to equip them, and to distribute to them severally their proper qualities. Epimetheus said to Prometheus : ‘Let me distribute, and do you inspect.’
This was agreed, and Epimetheus made the distribution [of claws and fur and other attributes] . . . Thus did Epimetheus, who, not being very wise, forgot that he had distributed among the brute animals all the qualities which he had to give-and when he came to man, who was still unprovided, he was terribly perplexed. Now while he was in this perplexity, Prometheus came to inspect the distribution, and he found that the other animals were suitably furnished, but that man alone was naked and shoeless, and had neither bed nor arms of defence. The appointed hour was approaching when man in his turn was to go forth into the light of day; and Prometheus, not knowing how he could devise his salvation, stole the mechanical arts of Hephaistos (Hephaestus) and Athene (Athena), and fire with them."
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;
Also I cleared their vision to discern signs from flames,which were obscure before this. Enough about these arts. Now as to the benefits to men that lay concealed beneath the earth--bronze, iron, silver, and gold--who would claim to have discovered them before me? No one, I know full well, unless he likes to babble idly. Hear the sum of the whole matter in the compass of one brief word--every art possessed by man comes from Prometheus." Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 441 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.)
And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived.
God bestowed upon Moses a copper serpent that was to be attached to a stick and used for curative purposes. The mythical Greek character Hermes also carried a serpent stick called the “Caduceus” that was divinely bestowed upon him, and which became the worldwide symbol of the medical profession. . But, of course, it is also true that Moses had another “serpent stick” that he carried on his missions to bring God’s messages to the Pharaoh.
We are told by Jewish sources such as the writer Eupolemus, who wrote about 150 BC, that the alphabet was invented by Moses while, according to Greek sources, the same alphabet was invented by Hermes. The Egyptian Hermes -- whom they called “Thoth” -- is credited with inventing hieroglyphic writing while the Babylonian Hermes, whom they called “Nebo,” is credited with inventing cuneiform writing. Nebo, a word that means the “Prophet,” was a common nickname for Moses, and when Moses died he was buried upon Mount Pisgah which is also called, no doubt in memory of Moses, Mount Nebo.
Needless to say Moses was a prolific writer of sacred texts. In this regard Hermes was apparently no slouch either. So-called Hermetic books dealing with the religion of Egypt were mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Porphyry, and Jamblichus. Since Clement even says that the books of Hermes were carried by the Egyptians in religious processions, one surely wonders if they were kept in an ark like the law of Moses during the religious processions of the Israelites. However well known these Hermetic writings were in ancient times, it wasn’t until the middle of the 15th century that some of these previously lost Hermetic texts had supposedly been found in the libraries of the Byzantine Empire. Suspect though they are, these books are accredited to the semi-mythical figure named Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest) whom the Gnostics insist, while not being Moses himself, was a contemporary of his. an ever present characteristic of any image of Hermes is his petasos, a cap which featured a wide circular brim. The fact that this petasos looks, even to the casual observer, remarkably like the halo of a Christian saint may be a clue to it‘s origin. For the corona of Moses, which is Scripturally attested to at Exodus 34:30 ("and when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come near him"), probably was represented pictorially as a circle around his head and, therefore, more than likely served as the origin of the petasos of Hermes.
Hermes also had another form of headgear that was intended to hide him, known as the cap of darkness or the helmet of invisibility. We know this because, according to Hyginus from his Astronomica (2.12), he once loaned it to Perseus: “Perseus ... received from Hermes, ... petasos, and, in addition, a helmet which kept its wearer from being seen ... the helmet of Hades (the Unseen One)...” Moses also had a headdress that he wore for the purpose of hiding his face. His corona was frightening to people so he used a veil to conceal it, as explained in the book of Exodus at 34:33: "And until Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face."
Hermes is often depicted as wearing winged sandals, but the Greeks would certainly know enough not to take this literally. The Greeks would understand that traveling upon wings was merely symbolic and meant nothing more than going swiftly. Moses was sent to deliver the Israelites upon eagles wings as at Exodus 19:4: "You have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself."
Casting of Lots Among the Greeks Hermes was considered to be the inventor of casting lots as a method of divination, but Moses also instructed the Hebrews, at a very early date, in the use of lots to divine the will of God. The iconoclastic Moses taught that no images should be made and, accordingly, there is some evidence that Hermes too was at first an iconoclast.
The name of Hermes originated in the Greek word “herma” meaning a “stone heap” -- probably from the custom of erecting a “herm” consisting of an upright stone surrounded at its base by a heap of smaller stones. These unpretentious monuments were often used as landmarks for travelers or to mark territorial boundaries. A mythical origin for these stone heaps may also be understood for, to quote from the Etymologicum Magnum, “when Hermes killed Argos, he was brought to trial by the gods. They acquitted him, and in doing so each threw his voting-pebble at his feet. Thus a heap of stones grew up around him.”
The point here being that the more recent images of Hermes result from apostasies of his earliest teachings, and that the original icon of Hermes, namely, the modest stone heap, was indeed one that would have been acceptable to even Israel himself. Notice Genesis 31:45-46: "And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap."
Moses taught that one out of every seven days was to be revered as holy and called the Sabbath, while Hermes also took one day out of the seven, calling it Wednesday after his name.
In fact, this was noticed thousands of years ago -- at least as early as the second (some think that he could possibly have lived in the third) century BC -- by the Egyptian priest Artapanus who some think may have been Jewish. Eusebius (ix. 27) quoted from a lost book that was written by Artapanus and called Concerning the Jews that said of Moses “he was beloved by the Egyptians, who called him Hermes, (dia tên tôn‘ierôn gramattôn‘ermêneian).” The Greeks themselves seem to corroborate Artapanus by admitting that the Ibis headed Egyptian god Thoth was just another version of their god Hermes. The Greeks even tell a story of how Hermes had come up out of the land of Egypt where he once had lived disguised as an Ibis. Similar to the Hebrew Scriptures the followers of Moses, in the story told by Artapanus, were plagued by poisonous serpents.
However, the Moses of Artapanus (instead of the copper serpent) employed the Ibis to attack the snakes. This was the reason, Artapanus says, for which Moses/Hermes revered the Ibis so. If Hermes was Moses, as Artapanus states, and Moses was a younger contemporary of Inachus the father of Io, as cited by the ancient chronologists, then it is very conceivable that the Hermes in the story of Io’s wanderings is a mythic Greek version of Moses in the Hebrew story about the wandering Jews.
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2020.06.07 18:06 Bohrbrain The Gospel of John: The Reminiscences of the Beloved Disciple Ch. VI-XI

John 6:1-15
It is to be observed that in the narratives of the Feeding of the Four Thousand (Mk. 8:4, Mt. 15:33), although not in the parallel narratives of the Feeding of the Five Thousand, the disciples put this question (πόθεν) to Jesus. The question is the same as that which Moses puts to Yahweh (Num. 11:13), πόθεν μοι κρέα δοῦναι παντὶ τῷ λαῷ τούτῳ; and the misgivings of Moses, when he reflects that he had 600,000 footmen to feed, are expressed in terms not unlike those which Philip uses here, πᾶν τὸ ὄψος τῆς θαλάσσης συναχθήσεται αὐτοῖς καὶ ἀρκέσει αὐτοῖς; (Num. 11:22).Another O.T. parallel may be found in 2 Kings 4:42f., where Elisha’s servant exclaims at the impossibility of feeding a hundred men with twenty barley loaves and ears of corn “in his sack” (εἴκοσι ἄρτους κριθίνους καὶ παλάθας, i.e. cakes). The narrative relates that Elisha said, Δὸς τῷ λαῷ καὶ ἐσθιέτωσαν, declaring that Yahweh had told him there would be enough and to spare. And so it was: ἔφαγον καὶ κατέλιπον. This is a story which bears a likeness to the Feedings of the Multitudes in the Gospels, in detail much more striking than the story of the miraculous increase of meal and oil by Elijah’s intervention (1 Kings 17:16). See Introd., p. clxxxi.However, in Jn.’s narrative the question (πόθεν) is a question put by Jesus Himself to Philip. Philip was of Bethsaida (1:44), and presumably he knew the neighbourhood; he was thus the natural person of whom to ask where bread could be bought. This is one of those reminiscences which suggest the testimony of an eye-witness. The Synoptics, in their accounts of the wonderful Feedings of the Multitudes, do not name individual disciples; but Jn. names both Philip and Andrew, and their figures emerge from his
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2 (ICC))

The identification of Philip and Andrew in #7, 8. Scholars repeat monotonously that the introduction of personal names into a narrative is often the sign of a later imitator trying to give his work an air of authenticity. If this is applied to John, one must admit, however, that the evangelist has chosen strangely, for Philip and Andrew are among the more obscure members of the Twelve. The fact that both of these disciples were honored in Asia Minor, the traditional locus of John’s Gospel (see Note on 1:43), is worth considering.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 246)

The nearness of the Passover (6:4) explains the flourishing of grass (6:10), which was not always available in much of the “wilderness” (e.g., 1 En. 89:28). The grass already present in the gospel tradition (Matt 14:19)—especially the “green” grass (Mark 6:39)—suggests that the nearness of the Passover is a genuine historical reminiscence.
(C.H Dodd, Historical Tradition, p. 211)
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John 6:16-21
In evaluating these individual details, we find the situation somewhat unusual. John’s account patently has a claim to be considered as the more primitive form of the story. John’s brevity and lack of emphasis on the miraculous are almost impossible to explain in terms of a deliberate alteration of the Marcan narrative. Rather, it would seem that into the Marcan form of the story there have been introduced elements from other stories, for example, the calming of the storm (Mark 4:35–41). This process of amalgamation seems still more developed in the Matthean form of the story where there is a profession of faith like the one elsewhere attributed to Peter (Matt 16:16), and where there is an incident of Peter’s getting out of the boat to come across the water to Jesus. We may compare the latter to the post-resurrectional story of Peter in John 21:7; for, as Dodd has pointed out, there are elements appropriate to the literary form of the post-resurrectional narrative in the story of the walking on the water—“The Appearances of the Risen Christ,” Studies in the Gospel, ed. D. E. Nineham (Lightfoot vol.; Oxford: Blackwell, 1957), pp. 23–24. Thus, John’s account of the walking on the water seems to represent a relatively undeveloped form of the story.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII. Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries, p. 254)

Verse 19. three or four miles. Literally “25 or 30 stadia”; a stadium was about 607 feet, roughly a furlong. Josephus, War III.x.7;#506, gives the measurements of the “Lake of Gennesar” as 40 stadia wide by 140 long; actually, at its greatest extent it is 61 stadia (7 miles) wide and 109 stadia (12 miles) long. Mark 6:47 mentions the boat’s being “in the midst of the sea.” Were this to be taken literally, it would mean that the boat was 20–30 stadia offshore, a distance that would agree with John’s information. But Mark’s designation simply means “at sea,” for in Mark 6:47 it is also said that Jesus can see them from the land.
sighted. Is the historical present a reflection of eyewitness tradition?
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 251-252)

(c) Certain details, such as numbers, are given, which could only be derived from an eye-witness. For example, at Cana there were six water-pots (2:6); the disciples had rowed twenty-five or thirty furlongs when Jesus came to them on the lake (6:19); Jesus’ tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout (19:23).
(Barrett C.K. Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text, p. 122)
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John 7:14-24
The reference to Moses and the Law in vs. 19 is another reason why scholars suggest that this part of the discourse was once connected to the end of ch. 5, where Moses is mentioned. However, it is quite possible that the contrast between Jesus’ education and the standard training of the Jewish teachers could have led logically to a reference to Moses, for the Law of Moses was the basis of formal education. What is the reason for Jesus’ charge that “the Jews” are not keeping the Law? Perhaps this is a general denunciation in the style of Jer 5:5, 9:4–6, etc. Some have thought that Jesus is accusing the Jews of breaking the spirit of the Sabbath by not wanting to see a man healed on the Sabbath (see vs. 23). More likely the final line of vs. 19 is the key to the answer. In desiring to kill Jesus (5:18, 7:1) they are violating one of the Commandments. Is John giving us a historical reminiscence in thus picturing a prolonged hostility to Jesus at Jerusalem, even to the point of assassination? The Synoptics, of course, give us no information about the Jerusalem ministry except in the last days, and they concentrate their description of the plot to kill Jesus in that final period. However, Luke 4:29 reports an attempt on Jesus’ life in Galilee, a region where we might expect religious feeling to be less acute than in Jerusalem. And we have seen that after the death of John the Baptist, Jesus felt it safer to withdraw from Galilee and the territory ruled by Herod (also Luke 13:31). Arguing from the Synoptic picture of hostility during the Galilean ministry, we may well suspect that John is giving us reliable tradition in not confining the plot at Jerusalem to kill Jesus to the last days of the ministry
((Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC)
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John 7:37-39
7:37. If it is correct (see the commentary) to see in the words attributed to Jesus an allusion to the water-drawing ritual celebrated at Tabernacles we have perhaps reason to think that John (or his source) was acquainted with Jerusalem and its customs before the Jewish War. This piece of evidence however may not be pressed too far since it is possible that knowledge only of the connection between Tabernacles and prayers for rain might account for what we find in the gospel.
COMMENTARY:
There may also be a special allusion to the ritual of the feast of Tabernacles. On the seven days of the feast a golden flagon was filled with water from the pool of Siloam and used for libations in the Temple (Sukkah 4.9). This rite is not mentioned in the Old Testament (but see below on Zech. 14:8) or in Josephus, but there is no reason to doubt that it was carried out before the destruction of the Temple (cf. Sukkah 4.9 end, with Josephus Ant. xiii, 372; these passages suggest that the rite was as early as Alexander Jannaeus). It probably originated in a rain-making charm, but the crudity of the practice had been refined away, leaving the custom of beginning prayers for rain at Tabernacles (Taanith 1.1; according to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus (fl. a.d. 80–120) from the first day of the feast, according to R. Joshua b. Hananiah (fl. a.d. 80–120) from the last (eighth) day). This reference to rain is expressed in terms of the second of the Eighteen Benedictions (‘the Power of Rain’), which also speaks of God as one who gives life to the dead, mighty to save (Singer, 44: מחיה מתים אתה רב להושיע). It seems probable that this feature of the festival suggested the form of the saying here ascribed to Jesus, especially in view of the similar facts to be adduced at 8:12.
(Barrat C.K. Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text, p. 122, 327)

John 7 is set in the context of the Feast of Tabernacles. The high point of the narrative is John 7:37–39, where Jesus stands on the last day of the feast and shouts: “ ‘Let anyone who is thirsty come to me, and let the one who believes in me drink. As the scripture has said, “Out of the believer’s heart shall flow rivers of living water.” ’ Now he said this about the Spirit, which believers in him were to receive; for as yet there was no Spirit, because Jesus was not yet glorified.” Which Scripture is mentioned here is debated, but many understand an allusion to Zech 14:8 because of the reference to “living water(s)” flowing from Jerusalem. Zechariah 14 is closely connected to the Feast of Tabernacles, mentioning it three times (Zech 14:16, 18, 19).8 These passages imagine a time when “all of the nations” will come to Jerusalem to keep Tabernacles and the punishment that will come upon the nations—especially Egypt—if they fail to keep the Feast of Tabernacles. Jeffrey L. Rubenstein (1995) has written a study on Sukkot that is related to this suggestion. His book is a detailed attempt to analyze and trace the development of the practice of the Feast of Sukkot throughout the Second Temple and early rabbinic periods.9 In his analysis of the Second Temple material, he references John 7 and connects it to Zech 14.10 In his later tracing of the development of Tabernacles, Rubenstein discusses the water libation ceremony and the accompanying prayers for winter rains. These become a part of the festival practice at some point. While Rubenstein notes that “no non-rabbinic source explicitly mentions the libation,” many commentators on the Gospel of John use the libation ceremony as a context for, and an explanation of, Jesus’ statement. It is in a situation such as this that we can evaluate the trajectory of thought indicated in John’s Gospel. For example, Rubenstein understands that “Zechariah 14 and John 7 indicate a connection between Sukkot and rain, but neither illuminates the specific rituals” (1995, 121). Jesus’ statement in John 7 may thus illustrate a point between the development of thought in Zech 14 and the later rabbinic sources. This statement in John 7 points toward a developing practice of the libation ceremony. Archaeological evidence has also been adduced to suggest that the libation ceremony is a pre-70 c.e. practice. Anita Engle, for example, has written on the discovery of glass bottles (or amphorisks) with tabernacle symbols on them, which may have been sold as souvenirs to travelers who had come to Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles.11 This is another example of the possibilities for cross-fertilization of disciplines with relation to this question. To give another brief example, many commentators connect Jesus’ statement, “I am the light of the world” (John 8:12),12 with the lighting of lamps at night during the Feast of Tabernacles, as this practice is mentioned in the Tannaim (m. Sukkah 5:2–4). It may also be a parallel to Zech 14:7, which speaks of a day when it will be light even in the evening (Brown 1966–70, 1:343). The Gospel of John’s statement placed on the lips of Jesus shows again this kind of intermediary position and the suggestions of later development that is seen explicitly in the later Tannaitic literature. Granted, this type of approach will be less than satisfying for those who are looking for absolutely solid historical grounding for the actions and statements of Jesus. This approach, for example, does not differentiate between an event of Jesus’ life and an event narrated in relationship to Jesus by his early followers. Given a general sense of the trajectory of thought and practice in relation to the feasts, this approach provides a plausible historical setting for this account. Even if not satisfying, it does take seriously the limitations of the evidence available to us, and it is perhaps a step toward a more robust reconstruction of the development of the Feast of Tabernacles. Additionally, this approach sets the evidence within its proper historical order rather than trying to read potentially earlier texts in light of possible later “evidence.”
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John 7:53-8:11: The Adulteress

However, a good case can be argued that the story had its origins in the East and is truly ancient (see Schilling, art. cit.). Eusebius (Hist. iii 39:17; GCS 91:292) says, “Papias relates another story of a woman who was accused of many sins before the Lord, which is contained in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.” If this is the same story as that of the adulteress, the reference would point to early Palestinian origins; but we cannot be certain that our story is the one meant. The 3rd-century Didascalia Apostolorum (ii 24:6; Funk ed., I, 93) gives a clear reference to the story of the adulteress and uses it as a presumably well-known example of our Lord’s gentleness; this work is of Syrian origin, and the reference means that the story was known (but not necessarily as Scripture) in 2nd-century Syria. From the standpoint of internal criticism, the story is quite plausible and quite like some of the other gospel stories of attempts to trap Jesus (Luke 20:20, 27). There is nothing in the story itself or its language that would forbid us to think of it as an early story concerning Jesus. Becker argues strongly for this thesis.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 335)

The textual evidence makes it impossible to hold that this section is an authentic part of the Gospel. It is not attested in the oldest manuscripts, and when it does make its appearance it is sometimes found in other positions, either after verse 36, or after verse 44, or at the end of this Gospel, or after Luke 21:38...But if we cannot feel that this is part of John’s Gospel, we can feel that the story is true to the character of Jesus. Throughout the history of the church it has been held that, whoever wrote it, this little story is authentic. It rings true. It speaks to our condition. And it can scarcely have been composed in the early church with its sternness about sexual sin. It is thus worth our while to study it, though not as an authentic part of John’s writing. The story is undoubtedly very ancient. Many authorities agree that it is referred to by Papias. It is mentioned also in the Apostolic Constitutions (2.24).
(Morris, Leon, The Gospel according to John, NICNT, p. 778)

Just here the story has the ring of authentic Jesus tradition, reminiscent of many stories in Luke where Jesus welcomes a known sinner without condemnation. 154 Perhaps most similar are the story of the woman weeping at Jesus’ feet (Luke 7:36–50), accounts of Jesus’ table fellowship with sinners (5:30; 7:34; 15:1–2), parables that feature a generous portrayal of sinners (15:11–32; 18:9–14), and narratives where Jesus calls, welcomes, and forgives sinners (5:20–23, 30–32; 7:48). Even if not an original part of John’s Gospel, the story of Jesus and the adulterous woman may well be an actual reminiscence of Jesus’ actions. Its witness coheres theologically and historically with the canonical portrait of Jesus, as well as with certain Johannine emphases and themes.
(Marianne Meye Thompson, John, The New Testament Library, 2015, p. 178-179)

8:6 Jesus’ response is surprising. Nothing in any of the stories in Matthew, Mark, or Luke quite prepares us for it. He “stooped down and wrote with his finger on the ground.” Much has been written about what words Jesus may or may not have written, but it is all speculative. Essentially his response is a non-answer, equivalent to silence, as is clear from the comment to follow that “they kept on questioning him” (v. 7). His body language is, if anything, even more striking than the reference to writing on the ground. The account is punctuated by notices that he “stooped down” and wrote (v. 6), “straightened up” and spoke to the gathered crowd (v. 7), again “stooped down” and wrote (v. 8), and finally “straightened up” and spoke again, this time to the woman (v. 10). While it cannot be proven that the story rests on the testimony of an eyewitness (Who would it be? The woman?), details of this kind, even if they had no apparent meaning, would not have been easily forgotten by anyone on the scene. If not attributable to an eyewitness, they point to a storyteller eminently skilled at creating a dramatic effect.
(Michaels J. Ramsey, The Gospel of John, NICNT)

-Gary Burge comments, “While this story has a problematic textual history, it bears all the marks of being an authentic story of Jesus” (Interpreting the Gospel of John [Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992], 181 n.6).
-Francis Moloney claims that even though the PA “plays no role in the Johannine account of Jesus’ presence in Jerusalem for the feast of Tabernacles, the passage is an ancient and precious witness to Jesus of Nazareth” (The Gospel of John [SP 4; Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1998],
-Ridderbos suggests that the pericope “evinces the character of an authentic tradition, not that of a fictitious story” (The Gospel according to John: A Theological Exegesis [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Dutch original, 1987, 1997], 286).
-Ulrich Becker labels the story “a striking account of an event from the ministry of Jesus,” even listing several reasons why he concludes this is an authentic story about Jesus (Jesus und die Ehebrecherin: Untersuchungen zur Text- und Üeberlieferungsgeschichte von John 7:53–8:11 [BNZW, 28; Berlin: Alfred Topelmann, 1963], 174ff.).
-Barnabas Lindars claims there is “no reason to doubt its authenticity” (The Gospel of John: Based on the Revised Standard Version [NCB; London: Oliphants, 1972; repr. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981], 306).
all in (David Alan Black, Jacob N. Cerone, The Pericope of the Adulteress in Contemporary Research (The Library of New Testament Studies Book 551 (2014)
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John 9:1-41
Worthy of notice is the expression “what is amazing,” or “the amazing thing.” While this noun occurs nowhere else in John’s Gospel, Jesus has used the verb “to be amazed” at least three times in the negative sense of being offended or scandalized, particularly in relation to the healing of the sick man at Bethesda (see 5:20, 28; 7:21). But to the man born blind, “what is amazing” is not so much the miracle itself as the delicious irony of the religious authorities’ reaction to it, in particular their ignorance of who Jesus is and where he is from. The man’s “amazement,” unlike theirs, is closer to amusement than offense, as when one savors a good joke and says, “Oh, that’s marvelous!” While he speaks for the Gospel writer, he also speaks in his own style and out of his own personality. Either this unnamed “man born blind” is the creation of a skilled literary artist, or else the Gospel narrative preserves here the memory of a real historical person with very definite character traits. In view of the rather uneven characterizations in the Gospel as a whole, the latter is the more likely alternative.
(Michaels J. Ramsey, The Gospel of John, NICNT)

In evaluating the similarity of John’s account to those of the Synoptics, we should note that the apocryphal Acts of Pilate vi 2 says that a blind man, who is obviously Bartimaeus of (a) above, was born blind, and thus seemingly blends the Synoptic account with John’s. Justin Apol. i 22:6 (PG 6:364) may also be blending the two traditions when he says that Jesus “cured the lame, the paralytics, and those blind from birth [plausibly reading pērous for ponērous].” Actually, the similarities between the various Synoptic accounts and John’s account are rather few (notice italics above). John is certainly not dependent on any single Synoptic account, nor is there any convincing evidence that John is dependent on any combination of details from the various Synoptic scenes. The most striking and important features in John are not found in the Synoptic scenes, for example: blind from birth; use of mud; healing through the water of Siloam; interrogation about the miracle; questioning of parents. Of course, these strikingly different details are often the very points that serve the Johannine theological interests, and therefore one is hard put to prove scientifically that they were not invented for the sake of pedagogy. Some points that might be mentioned in favor of the primitive and authentic character of the Johannine story are the use of spittle, the brevity with which the miracle is narrated, the local information about the pool of Siloam, the acquaintance with the fine points of the Sabbath rules. In general, then, it seems that probability favors the theory that behind ch. 9 lies a primitive story of healing preserved only in the Johannine tradition (so also Dodd, Tradition, pp. 181–88). The evangelist with his sense of drama has seen in this story an almost ideal example of a sign that might be used to instruct his readers and strengthen them in their belief that Jesus is the Messiah (20:31), and has elaborated the tale with that goal in mind.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 378)

Reporting on the latest archaeological discoveries in Jerusalem, Urban C. von Wahlde sheds light on the historical realities associated with the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem. Where the explanatory statement, “which means ‘sent’ ” (John 9:7), has been patently dismissed as having no historical relevance because of its clearly symbolic and theological character, the archaeological discoveries since 2004 and von Wahlde’s analysis of them pose a serious challenge to such moves. While the northern Pool of Siloam has been known for more than a century, the identification of the larger southern pool as a miqveh—a pool used for ritual purification—bears considerable implications for understanding the larger set of events reported in John 9. Rather than seeing the primary level of meaning as a reflection of the debates between later Johannine Christians and the local synagogue in Asia Minor or some other Diaspora setting, the originative history of the events takes on new significance. Jesus’ sending of the man to wash in the Pool of Siloam and to show himself to the priests would have restored him socially and religiously, and such a detail would not have made sense outside of Palestine or after the fall of Jerusalem. In addition to von Wahlde’s major contribution to Johannine archaeological and topographical studies (2006), this study makes major inroads not only into Johannine historicity but also into socioreligious understandings of Jesus’ historic ministry.
(Paul N. Anderson, Felix Just, Tom Thatcher: John, Jesus and History, Volume 2*: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel* (Early Christianity and Its Literature), 2009, p. 112-113)
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John 10:22-42
“It was winter, and Jesus was walking in the Temple, in Solomon’s porch.”That is, He was giving His teaching under shelter, because of the severity of the season, in the eastern cloister of the Temple precincts (for τὸ ἱερόν, the Temple enclosure, see on 2:14). This vivid touch suggests that the writer is thoroughly familiar with the place and the conditions under which instruction was given there. At the time when the Fourth Gospel was written, the Temple had been for some years in ruins; but the note of time and circumstance is easily explicable, if we have here the reminiscence of an eye-witness of the scene.
(Bernard J.H, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel according to John, Volumes 1 & 2, (ICC) p. 343)

...as in all the Johannine scenes, we must not jump too quickly to a negative evaluation of the tradition here. It is hard to imagine why the setting at the feast of Dedication would or could have been invented. It was a relatively unimportant feast and not a pilgrimage feast. Although we may find a connection between the theme of the dedication of the Temple or an altar and the consecration of Jesus (vs. 36), the connection is not so obvious that the saying would have been responsible for the creation of the setting. Miss Guilding would suggest that the fact that shepherd readings were common at Dedication time in the synagogues prompted the chronological inventiveness of the evangelist. Yet, as we have insisted, the argument can be reversed: if Jesus really spoke in Jerusalem during the feast of Dedication, what topic would have been more natural than the readings the people had recently heard in the synagogues, or would soon hear? And there is one detail of local color that is very accurate. At this winter season, when the cold winds sweep in from the east across the great desert, we find Jesus in the east portico of the Temple, the only one of the porticoes whose closed side would protect it from the east wind (see Note on vs. 23).As for the content of Jesus’ discourse, this too shows traditional elements which cannot be easily discounted. As we shall see, the two questions implied in vss. 24 and 33 about Jesus’ being Messiah and God (or Son of God) are exactly the questions that the Synoptic Gospels set in the framework of the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrin. Jesus’ answers and the charge of blasphemy are also found in the Synoptic trial scene. We have suggested before that in scattering these charges throughout a longer final ministry in Jerusalem, John may be giving the truer picture; for the Synoptic trial scene has the air of being a summary and a synthesis of oft-repeated charges.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC, p. 406)

Turning to the Feast of Dedication mentioned in John 10:22, the connections between Jesus’ teaching and this feast have not been nearly as clear. Little has been written on this, especially when compared to the amount that has been written on the Passover and Tabernacles contexts. The connections between those feasts and the actions and teachings of Jesus cause one to wonder what potential points of contact there might be in this context of Dedication. James VanderKam (1990, 212) proposes a potential connection here. He argues that language parallels suggest that the Jewish accounts of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Dan 7, 8, and 11 are to be brought to mind. He concludes, “It seems no accident that John dated Jesus’ assertion of his divinity to the festival of Hanukkah when the blasphemies of Antiochus IV, the self-proclaimed god manifest, were remembered” (1990, 213). So, according to VanderKam, Jesus is portrayed as legitimately claiming for himself what Antiochus IV had illegitimately claimed. VanderKam’s argument is intriguing. He may be right in focusing attention upon the period of the Maccabean revolt, but the focus should rather be placed upon the Maccabean rulers themselves.The good shepherd discourse of John 10:1–21 can thus be understood in connection with the Feast of Dedication. If this discourse is connected with Dedication, then Jesus’ claim to be a “good shepherd” (10:11) is in contrast to “all who came before” (10:8). This may be another example of Jesus’ being presented as a ruler for the people, but a different kind of ruler than was commonly understood (18:33–37). The Maccabees, who are remembered by the people at Dedication, ruled because of the political power and military force they could muster, while Jesus becomes the true shepherd of the people by laying down his life. The image of those who came before as thieves and robbers may emphasize a rule brought about and characterized by violence, to be contrasted with the authentic leading of his people—like a shepherd caring for his flock. This is similar to VanderKam’s suggestion, in that it has Jesus arguing for legitimacy over against illegitimacy; in this case, however, it would seem to pose a contrast to the group remembered positively at the Feast of Dedication.15
Dedication is somewhat different from the Feasts of Tabernacles and Passover because it owes its origins to the events recorded in 1 and 2 Maccabees, rather than more established feasts stipulated in the Hebrew Bible. As mentioned above, VanderKam notes verbal parallels to the Maccabean accounts. It is also interesting and suggestive that the Maccabean account connects Dedication closely with Tabernacles (2 Macc 1:18), which is paralleled in the Gospel of John with the close connection between the Tabernacles and Dedication contexts.16 This suggests the possibility that the account in John 10 is drawing upon the language of the Second Temple literature, though it should be noticed that the word Dedication (ἐγκαίνια) can also be found in the context of Ezra’s dedication of the temple (Ezra 6:16–17 lxx). Brown (1966–70, 1:402) suggests parallels to the tabernacle (Num 7:10–11) and temple (1 Kgs 8:63) dedications as well.For two reasons, the Feast of Dedication had a much smaller role in post-70 c.e. Jewish practice. First, because Dedication is so centered on temple practice and in fact is centered on the existence of the temple itself, it played a much smaller role after the temple’s destruction. Second, the connection with rebellion against the oppressive power became much less popular after 70 c.e. (Schauss 1975, 228–29). Even in Josephus’s writings, the practice of this festival seems somewhat unclear (Ant. 21.323). The casual mention of Dedication and the thematic connections here suggest a setting before 70 c.e. and therefore potentially set within Jesus’ own lifetime.
Paul N. Anderson, Felix Just, Tom Thatcher, John, Jesus and History, Vol 2: Aspects of Historicity in the Fourth Gospel (Early Christianity and Its Literature), 2009, p. 123-125

Winter (10:23), even as early as the feast of dedication, could become cold in Jerusalem, so Jesus had good reason to be walking in a colonnaded area. Although this fact would be obvious to readers who had been to Jerusalem in winter before its destruction over two decades before, winter was not a favored time for travel, especially from long distances (like the Diaspora); pilgrims even from Galilee came more frequently to the major festivals of Tabernacles, Passover, and Pentecost. Such factors increase the likelihood that this statement is an accurate historical reminiscence
(Barnett, Reliable, p. 63 in Craig Keener, The Gospel of John: A Commentary, Volumes 1 & 2, Baker Academic, p. 823)
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John 11:1-44
From the contents of the Johannine account, then, there is no conclusive reason for assuming that the skeleton of the story does not stem from early tradition about Jesus. What causes doubt is the importance that John gives to the raising of Lazarus as the cause for Jesus’ death. We suggest that here we have another instance of the pedagogical genius of the Fourth Gospel. The Synoptic Gospels present Jesus’ condemnation as a reaction to his whole career and to the many things that he had said and done. In the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, we are told in Luke 19:37 that, much to the discontent of the Pharisees, the people were praising Jesus because “of all the mighty miracles they had seen.” The Fourth Gospel is not satisfied with such a generalization. It is neither sufficiently dramatic nor clear-cut to say that all Jesus’ miracles led to enthusiasm on the part of some and hate on the part of others. And so the writer has chosen to take one miracle and to make this the primary representative of all the mighty miracles of which Luke speaks. With a superb sense of development he has chosen a miracle in which Jesus raises a dead man. All Jesus’ miracles are signs of what he is and what he has come to give man, but in none of them does the sign more closely approach the reality than in the gift of life. The physical life that Jesus gives to Lazarus is still not in the realm of the life from above, but it is so close to that realm that it may be said to conclude the ministry of signs and inaugurate the ministry of glory. Thus, the raising of Lazarus provides an ideal transition, the last sign in the Book of Signs leading into the Book of Glory. Moreover, the suggestion that the supreme miracle of giving life to man leads to the death of Jesus offers a dramatic paradox worthy of summing up Jesus’ career. And finally, if a pattern of sevens had any influence on the editing of the Gospel (p. cxlii), the addition of the Lazarus miracle gave the seventh sign to the Book of Signs...
We suggest then that, while the basic story behind the Lazarus account may stem from early tradition, its causal relationship to the death of Jesus is more a question of Johannine pedagogical and theological purpose than of historical reminiscence; and this explains why no such causal connection is found in the Synoptic tradition. A miracle story that was once transmitted without fixed context or chronological sequence has been used in one of the later stages in Johannine editing as an ending to the public ministry of Jesus. As we mentioned in the Introduction (p. xxxvii), this addition may have occurred in the evangelist’s second edition of his Gospel or, more probably, in the final redaction.
(Raymond Brown, John I-XII, AYBC)

Consider in this light John 11 and the raising of Lazarus. John Meier’s investigation of the story comes to three main conclusions. First, John did not invent it: there was a pre-Johannine tradition. Second, that tradition “goes back ultimately to some event involving Lazarus, a disciple of Jesus.” Third, although we no longer can tell what actually happened, “this event was believed by Jesus’ disciples even during his lifetime to be a miracle of raising the dead.”
(John Meier, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, p. 798-832 in James Chartlesworth with Jolyon G.R Pruszinski, Jesus Research: The Gospel of John, 2019, "Reflections on Matthew, John, and Jesus by Dale C. Allison Jr.” p. 63)

The placing of Lazarus, a leper, in Bethany (Jn 11.1-17) is in line with the proscriptions in the Temple Scroll that a place for lepers is to be located east of the Holy City (11Q19). The description of Lazarus’ tomb and the stench of the corpse (11.38-44) fits precisely the tombs around Jerusalem—many of which are caves (Jn 11.38)—and the need for many glass vessels for perfume (unguentaria) to be placed near the corpse.
(James H. Charlesworth: The Historical Jesus in the Fourth Gospel: A Paradigm Shift? Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 8 (2010) 3–46 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI 10.1163/174551909X12607965419559 brill.nl/jshj)
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2020.05.06 04:15 uknowhowitgoes2020 I'm (F17) straight and I need to come out to my ex/best friend/roommate (F18)

For the majority of my adolesence, I identified rather openly as bisexual. Recently, I've realized that I am not bisexual but straight, and I have an immense amount of guilt for a number of reasons. The biggest thing is my apols to the actual LGBTQ population of the world, so quickly on that note-- I am sorry for contributing to the illegitimizing of your identity. I made a mistake, I am sorry. I intend to fight for acceptance and normalization in every aspect of my life for as long as I live. But, anyways--
On the more personal side of things, I don't really plan on bringing it up to anyone because I don't want to steal anything else from people who are LGBTQ, but I have kind of the pressing need to come out to one person in particular: my ex-girlfriend (gay, if it matters), who I dated throughout my entire sophomore year of high school. Although our breakup was pretty ugly, over our junior year we were able to reconcile and build our friendship back stronger than ever. Now, as we're getting ready to graduate high school, she is one of my best friends in the world. I always pride myself on how open and honest we always are with each other, and always have been since we made up.
We're attending the same university in the fall, so after a lot of deliberation we decided to room together although many advise against rooming with your high school friends. We both agreed to have consistently open lines of communication, and if it doesn't work out, we'll stop. The reason I feel like I want to tell her about my new identity is to stay true to this promise of honesty and communication. It just feels wrong to be keeping something like this from her.
I worry about how to bring it up, and I really can't even imagine how she might react-- my fear is that she looks back on our relationship thinking it was a total lie-- which it wasn't. I did love her, I DO love her, but I misidentified my love for her as romantic love. I want to tell her in a way that makes it clear that I am very grateful for her, our relationship, and everything it taught me, but that I have to be honest with her about who I like.
How do I do it? The guilt is eating me alive.
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2020.04.23 05:57 Kenjiin88 I need to praise this game

I need to get this off my chest, because I genuinely shocked by how much this game has turned around. I've played many mmos for years, FFXI, WoW, FFXIV and dabbled in nearly all others, but only touched the beta for ESO back in the day.
For context, I'm not a huge ES fan. I loved Oblivion and played it to death. Something about Skyrim never clicked with me, though I cant point my finger on why. Always had an issue with the dated melee combat.
I'd been getting fed up with the constant vertical progression in so many mmos these days. I'd dabbled back in Classic wow and enjoyed it's slow pace while leveling.
Picked up ESO on sale. I expected absolutely nothing but a half assed ES game with generic quests, questionable voice acting, limited content etc. I bought it so I could just see how bad it was out of boredom in lockdown. Then I was blindsided lol.
I'm hooked. I bought the base game 2 days ago. I've put 21hrs into my Sorcerer. I'm only level 19. I know I could be so much higher and I dont care. For so long I've missed an online games sense of exploration. Everything is always very structured and your route is planned for you before you begin. You start reading the quests but before you know it you're rushing to cap.
I cant explain what it is about this game. Though I havent felt like this about a games world since I starting playing WoW in TBC. The size of the zones, with all the content forever being relevant, with such good stories and voice acting. I find myself laughing out loud when questing and getting massively distracted and ending up somewhere I wasnt intending on going.
I started out in Vvardenfel as that's where the game put me at the start. I couldn't put the game down. I had to start googling if this zone was a one off because I genuinely couldn't quite believe the game could have this much content and be this immersive in one zone and more people arent singing its praises louder.
The music is amazing, as I expect from an ES game, but how it flows and connects with the game world just makes it feel living and breathing. An issue I had when leveling to cap in ff14 recently was just how disconnected I felt from the over world. All the mobs seemed to serve literally no purpose. Even in story quests when your job is to kill something, they will specifically spawn a new group of enemies inside a purple ring when you arrive. My character never felt grounded in the world for some reason, and that comes from someone who really enjoyed the HW and ShB stories.
I have more fun doing random eso side quests than I did most leveling in any other mmo.
Yesterday after getting certified in the professions and joining the mage and fighters guild, I decided to go and join the undaunted. As I said, I'd started in the Morrowind story, so I shrined to Daggerfall I think? Hooded char shows up. I realised this was not what I was looking for but accepted it anyway. Then accidentally continued that story cause I didnt change my quest back. Then I end up going through that whole starter quest, before being on a sort of tiny pirate island on the map. Cant remember what it's called. Then I just got caught up in the quests there. Before you know it, I'm trying to figure out a treasure map quest for an hour running around with some other person I met, refusing to just google it! Because I didnt care how long it took. I'm in not rush.
The amount of achievements and things to checklist off on every map is a completionists dream. I ended up doing all 6 of the world bosses with 2 random people in Vvardenfel, one of them being CP200 something. The other 30 something. They were still so challenging and fun to do! That content was eye opening and I had more of a social experience with those people than I have done with any random people in WoW for a very long time.
All in all, I know I havent scratched the surface, but it's all so refreshing and vibrant. Vvardenfels aesthetics arent even usually my type of zone, all the mushrooms and stuff. I like desserts and snow, but I cant help but explore every corner of it.
I jumped on the shop and preordered Greymoor and bought all the previous chapters, and will keep ESO+ for its perks. I'm glad I set out to see how bare bones ESO was out of boredom. Thanks anyone that read this far. This was needed lol. Apols for any incorrect spelling of zone names!
TL;DR - ESO is an awesome, unique online experience in today's mmo market and I honestly cant believe I've ignore it for so long for no real reason other than me expecting it to be terrible, because I'm usually very wary of already established franchises (in today's day and age) slapping an mmo badge on a product.
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2020.02.08 10:43 gothalert NHS gender services info

Sorry a bit long & apols if already posted, I haven’t noticed it on the sub.
If you’re not registered, do consider signing up to add your voice.
www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/spec-services/npc-crg/gender-dysphoria-clinical-programme/
Dear stakeholder,
We are writing to you as a patient representative, charity or person interested in the care and support of people with gender dysphoria. You might also be a stakeholder of the Clinical Reference Group for Gender Dysphoria Services.
New adult gender dysphoria health service to be piloted in London in 2020
The Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust has been selected to run a 3-year pilot that will evaluate the delivery of specialised gender dysphoria services for adults (over 17) in a non-specialist setting.
The new service will be based at 56 Dean Street, an award-winning NHS HIV and sexual health clinic in Soho, Central London. The development of the pilot is part of NHS England’s ambitious programme of work to increase clinical capacity in the national gender dysphoria service, and by doing so improve access and address waiting times.
People using the service will see a team of multi-skilled professionals that will include established expertise in gender dysphoria healthcare. The service will deliver a range of interventions such as assessment, diagnosis, hormone therapy, voice therapy and referral for surgery and signposting to other holistic services.
During the pilot phase, access to the service will initially be given to people who were registered as patients of the Trust’s HIV/GUM service at 1 January 2020, and priority will be given to patients who are on a waiting list at an established Gender Dysphoria Clinic.
The service will work to an adaptation of NHS England’s national service specification for non-surgical services, which states that access to the NHS pathway of care will be dependent on a clinical diagnosis of gender dysphoria.
The service expects to see the first patients in spring 2020. Further details will be available soon around the arrangements for identifying eligible patients.
Over time, the aim is for people with gender dysphoria to be able to access specialist expertise in other local health settings around the country. In support of this, NHS England will also establish further pilots during 2020. This includes a service rooted in primary care in Greater Manchester, the model for which has been developed as an outcome of stakeholder feedback gathered there in 2018 and 2019. Further pilots around the country are also being explored.
More information about each of the pilots will be shared in future programme updates.
Update on Gender Identity Development Service for Children and Young People
All of NHS England’s policies and specifications for the 149 specialised services it commissions are routinely reviewed every few years. The service specification for the Gender Identity Development Service (2016) which describes the approach for prescribing puberty suppressants and the related Clinical Commissioning Policy: Prescribing of Cross-Sex Hormones (2016) are now up for review, a commitment set out in each the documents.
This means that the NHS will consider the most up-to-date evidence including international research and best practice, alongside advice from clinical and academic experts, to establish a future clinical commissioning position on the use of puberty suppressants and cross-sex hormones.
To support this planned review, an independent expert group is being formed to make recommendations on the evidence, and whether changes are required to existing clinical policies that underpin the use of these on the NHS.
NICE will also undertake a thorough review of the latest clinical evidence to help inform the working group’s review.
Dr Hilary Cass OBE, previously a President of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, has been appointed to chair the independent group. Details of the full membership will be shared shortly.
To inform the review of the wider service specification, NICE has been asked to develop guidance that will help identify when to refer children and young people to specialist services.
The wider service specification for gender identity services for children and young people will reflect the outcomes of both reviews.
If you would like to be kept informed about this work and are not already registered as a member of the gender dysphoria clinical reference group, you can join at: www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/spec-services/get-involved/crg-stake-reg/.
Re-procurement of specialised surgical services for adults
NHS England has completed the first phase of procurement to identify organisations that are best placed to deliver specialised gender dysphoria surgical services from 2019, against a new service specification. The process of procurement evaluated bidders against key criteria such as quality, safety, clinical expertise and clinical governance. The panel of evaluators included people with lived experience.
Details of organisations delivering surgical services from 1 January 2020 (to be amended over time) can be found in the service specification.
Patients on the gender dysphoria pathway who meet the relevant clinical criteria and who require a surgical intervention that is commissioned by NHS England can be referred by a lead professional at a specialist Gender Dysphoria Clinic.
Clinical Reference Group members
NHS England’s Clinical Reference Group (CRG) for Gender Dysphoria Services gives independent expert advice to its Programme Board for gender dysphoria services. Recruitment has been taking place for its clinical membership. Dr John Dean, Clinical Director of the Laurels Gender Dysphoria Service (Devon Partnership NHS Trust) has been appointed as the CRG chair. The other clinical members are:
Dr Sarah Davidson, Consultant Clinical Psychologist Matthew Mills, Consultant Speech and Language Therapist Dr Talat Mushtaq, Consultant in Paediatric Endocrinology Dr Jatinder Singh, General Practitioner The CRG also includes patient and public voice representation of people with lived experience, who were appointed through an open recruitment process.
Finding out more
You can find out more about NHS England’s approach to commissioning gender dysphoria services by visiting www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/spec-services/npc-crg/gender-dysphoria-clinical-programme/.
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2019.11.26 20:27 JustToLurkArt Traditional Authorship of the Gospels

A couple hours ago a user posted to ask if we still accept the traditional authorship of the Gospels. For whatever reasons they deleted the post so I thought I'd share my response:
The biggest problem with the theory of anonymous Gospels is = there’s no evidence for it. There are no anonymous manuscripts of the four Gospels.
Here are some facts:
1. There is absolute uniformity in the authors to whom each of the books is attributed in every language. Titles at times are abbreviated but the familiar names are found in every single manuscript we possess.
2. The earliest and best copies of the four Gospels are unanimously attributed to: Mathew, Mark, Luke and John. There is no manuscript evidence (thus no historical evidence) to support the claim that “originally” the Gospels had no titles.
3. It is implausible that a book without a title was circulating the Roman Empire for almost a hundred years, then at some point someone attributed an author. There are no traces of disagreement in any manuscripts (supposedly this is supposed to have happened not just once, but with each one of the four Gospels.) If the authors were assigned much later, we have to ask why aren’t there Gospel manuscripts with conflicting authorship?
4. For example: we know the book of Hebrews was anonymous and we have manuscript evidence that it has been attributed to different authors. You don’t find that with the Gospels not to mention that there’s no debate about the Gospel authors among early Christians. The early church fathers were prolific letter writers and they attribute the Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
5. If the skeptic is right, and authorship were added at a much later date to give them “authority”, then it would be irrational to choose Mark and Luke (neither of whom was an eyewitness to Jesus.) Someone who was purposely trying to mislead would attribute them to an apostle like Andrew, Peter or Jude. Again, there are no traces of disagreement in any Gospel manuscripts.
6. From Luke: we know that many accounts of the life of Jesus were already in circulation by the time he wrote (Luke 1:1-4). In historical context of that era there would be a practical need to identify these books. (Again, we know the letter to the Hebrews is actually anonymous. Early manuscripts either remain anonymous or where attributed to different authors. Such is the case with Hebrews but – that’s precisely what we don’t find when it comes to the Gospels.
7. From Paul: there are a series of texts in Paul's letters (Romans 1:2-5, 16:25-27, 1 Corinthians 11:23-26, 15:3-7, Philippians 2:6-11) that don't appear to be written by Paul. Paul is quoting creeds written by early Christians. Pre-Pauline Creeds, found in Paul's letters, contain creedal summaries of early Christian beliefs from as early as 35-40 C.E.)
8. From early Christians: belief about the resurrection was actually very early – within 1-2 years of Jesus's death. The hymn of 1 Corinthians 15:3-8 has been recognized by scholars to be from 1-2 years of Jesus's death. We know the early Christians believed: "that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He was seen by Cephas, then by the twelve." This creed/hymn was sung in the early Church when groups of believers got together. This creed is evidence that the appearances of a resurrected Jesus were something that the early Christians believed and not just something that was made up.
9. The only way to defend the assertion of “anonymous Gospels” is to ignore virtually all of the evidence from the earliest Greek manuscripts and the most ancient Christian writers. You must ignore the compelling reasons to conclude that the four Gospels are first-century biographies of Jesus, written within the lifetime of the apostles and based on eyewitness testimony.
10. We know the memoirs of the apostles were circulating, collected and read in the early Christian home churches. Justin Martyr, writing between 155-157AD, mentions the home churches reading from the “memoirs of the apostles”. (1 Apol. chp 67, Weekly Worship of the Christians.)
11. Irenaeus (130-202AD) records that he listened to the sermons of Polycarp who was a disciple of John. (Jerome corroborates Polycarp was a disciple of the apostle John.) In his letter to Florinus Irenaeus writes, “I can even describe the place where the blessed Polycarp used to sit and discourse – his going out, too, and his coming in-his general mode of life and personal appearance, together with the discourses which he delivered to the people; also how he would speak of his familiar intercourse with John, and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord; and how he would call their words to remembrance. Whatsoever things he had heard from them respecting the Lord, both with regard to His miracles and His teaching, Polycarp having thus received [information] from the eye-witnesses of the Word of life, would recount them all in harmony with the Scriptures. These things, through, God's mercy which was upon me, I then listened to attentively …”
12. In Against Heresies (180AD) Irenaeus provides the first explicit witness to a four-fold gospel canon listing the authors as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. He also testifies he had access to early copies of Revelation. Irenaeus also writes, “When the blessed apostles had founded and built up the Church, they handed over the ministry of the episcopate to Linus. Paul mentions this Linus in his Epistles to Timothy. Anencletus succeeded him. After him Clement received the lot of the episcopate in the third place from the apostles. He had seen the apostles and associated with them, and still had their preaching sounding in his ears and their tradition before his eyes -- and not he alone, for there were many still left in his time who had been taught by the apostles.”
13. Tertullian (197-220AD) in his Prescription against Heresy references “evidence traceable to apostolic sources”. He suggests that original New Testament manuscripts were still around when he was writing at the end of the second century. Chapter 35 “Our system is not behind any in date; on the contrary, it is earlier than all; and this fact will be the evidence of that truth which everywhere occupies the first place.” and chapter 36: “[*the apostolic churches] in which their own authentic writings are read uttering the voice and presenting the face of each of them severally.”
14. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians shows that he and those Christians in contact with him were aware of the entire New Testament in the early the 2nd century. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (with New Testament Scriptural Annotations)
tl;dr: In context of other ancient documents, the New Testament is by far the most widely attested. The evidence from the earliest Greek manuscripts and the most ancient Christian writers attribute the Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. “Not only the earliest and best manuscripts but all of the ancient manuscripts - without exception, in every language – attribute the four Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.” Brant Pitre, The Case for Jesus: The Biblical and Historical Evidence for Christ.
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2019.11.17 21:28 stroke_bot overshadowing tristam quincy appendicularian nonlaminated

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2019.11.16 07:32 stroke_bot traducianistic halwe incisions bahiaite

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2019.10.27 14:01 stroke_bot helvella constitutionality melodramatics

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2019.09.24 04:32 stroke_bot redbaiting dehydrant vocalizations sambucaceae gaulish datsw

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2019.08.29 13:37 stroke_bot nauseum pyrography

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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.07.23 21:03 JustToLurkArt New Testament accuracy, in context of textual criticism, is 99.5% accurate.

The fact that the New Testament exists is evidence that a movement sprang from Judaism based on the life, death and teachings of a historical person named Jesus. Even sources outside of the New Testament collaborate with the New Testament Gospels in as much as they believe a historical person named Jesus was born, baptized, taught, had disciples and was killed for insurrection by the local authorities.
The earliest Jesus followers were convinced that Jesus was the Jewish Messiah and continued as a sect within Judaism known as the Way. The fact that Christianity exists is evidence that the Jesus followers were highly motivated to spread their message throughout the region. In fact within 20-30 years after Jesus the early Jesus followers had effectively spread from Galilee into several cities, from Galatia, to Thessalonica, Corinth and Rome.
It’s believed that a “logia” of the sayings of Jesus (think bullet-point memoirs or codices) created by literate disciples were most likely written form within Jesus’ lifetime. It is highly probable that notebooks were used by Jesus’ own disciples and by later adherents in the early church to assist in memory retention by functioning as an aide-mémoire.” – The Jesus Tradition and Notebooks We know of a reference to a “book” and “parchments” in 2 Tim 4:13, which may specifically designate a notebook or perhaps a collection.
We know Paul’s letters were the first New Testament documents in final form and that his letters were copied and circulated in collected forms well within the 1st century. We know Peter (2 Peter 3:15,16) recognized the writings of the Paul as scripture implying there was already somewhat of a proto canon.
In fact there are a series of texts in Paul's letters that weren’t authored by Paul but recorded by Paul. Paul quotes creedal hymns written by the earliest Jesus followers. These pre-Pauline creeds contain creedal summaries of early Christian beliefs which possibly date as early as 35-40 C.E. From these we know belief about the resurrection was very early.
We know the memoirs of the apostles were circulating, collected and read in the early Christian home churches. Justin Martyr, writing between 155-157AD, mentions the home churches reading from the “memoirs of the apostles”. (1 Apol. chp 67, Weekly Worship of the Christians.)
The evidence from the earliest Greek manuscripts and the most ancient Christian writers attribute the Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. “Not only the earliest and best manuscripts but all of the ancient manuscripts - without exception, in every language – attribute the four Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.” – The Case for Jesus: The Biblical and Historical Evidence for Christ by Brant Pitre. Pitre notes that it’s problematic to assert that these manuscripts circulated around the Roman Empire without titles for almost a hundred years and then somehow at some point be attributed to exactly the same author by scribes throughout the world – and leave no trace of disagreement in any manuscripts. (Pitre notes that the letter to the Hebrews is actually anonymous. Early manuscripts either remain anonymous or where attributed to different authors. That’s precisely what you don’t find when it comes to the Gospels.)
Irenaeus (130-202AD) records that he listened to the sermons of Polycarp who was a disciple of John. (Jerome corroborates Polycarp was a disciple of the apostle John.) In his letter to Florinus Irenaeus writes, “I can even describe the place where the blessed Polycarp used to sit and discourse – his going out, too, and his coming in-his general mode of life and personal appearance, together with the discourses which he delivered to the people; also how he would speak of his familiar intercourse with John, and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord; and how he would call their words to remembrance. Whatsoever things he had heard from them respecting the Lord, both with regard to His miracles and His teaching, Polycarp having thus received [information] from the eye-witnesses of the Word of life, would recount them all in harmony with the Scriptures. These things, through, God's mercy which was upon me, I then listened to attentively …”
Tertullian (197-220AD) in his Prescription against Heresy references “evidence traceable to apostolic sources”. He suggests that original New Testament manuscripts were still around when he was writing at the end of the second century. Chapter 35 “Our system is not behind any in date; on the contrary, it is earlier than all; and this fact will be the evidence of that truth which everywhere occupies the first place.” and chapter 36: “[*the apostolic churches] in which their own authentic writings are read uttering the voice and presenting the face of each of them severally.”
In Against Heresies (180AD) Irenaeus provides the first explicit witness to a four-fold gospel canon listing the authors as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. He also testifies he had access to early copies of Revelation. Irenaeus also writes, “When the blessed apostles had founded and built up the Church, they handed over the ministry of the episcopate to Linus. Paul mentions this Linus in his Epistles to Timothy. Anencletus succeeded him. After him Clement received the lot of the episcopate in the third place from the apostles. He had seen the apostles and associated with them, and still had their preaching sounding in his ears and their tradition before his eyes -- and not he alone, for there were many still left in his time who had been taught by the apostles.”
Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians shows that he and those Christians in contact with him were aware of the entire New Testament in the early the 2nd century. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (with New Testament Scriptural Annotations)
Historical criticism attempts to verify the historicity of and understand the meaning of an event that is reported to have taken place in the past. Textual criticism is a tool bible scholars use to discern the accuracy of the originals; the more manuscripts; the more accurate they are in reconstructing the originals. The New Testament accuracy in context of textual criticism is 99.5% accurate. The Reliability of the New Testament (Introduction)
In context of other ancient documents, the New Testament is by far the most widely attested. The oldest complete manuscript is the Codex Sinaiticus (330-360AD) but nonetheless there are even older fragments. There are about a dozen fragmented manuscripts from or around the 2nd century that represent about 43% of the New Testament. As far as variants between existent copies: 75% are simply spelling errors, 15% are variations in Greek synonyms/transpositions, 9% are late changes and 1% does affect the meaning of the text. None of these variants actually challenge or affect essential Christian doctrines.
submitted by JustToLurkArt to Christianity [link] [comments]


2019.06.24 11:08 HatulHS Token Druid - Top8 Qualifier & Dumpster to High Legend

Hey, I'm Hatul - I used to be a competitive player (Appeared in 2018 HCT Fall Championship), I'm returning from a Hearthstone break and getting myself back into the game. I would like to share a deck I had success with in the past days so you can enjoy it too! Deck Picture & Code
https://i.imgur.com/ei07N5X.png
#
AAECAZICBK7SAtaZA8mcA5+3Aw1A/QL3A+YFxAaL7gLX7wL6/gL6hgPDlAPOlAPKnAPTnAMA
#
# To use this deck, copy it to your clipboard and create a new deck in Hearthstone

Deck Stats & Achievements Stats Legend 1500 to Legend 200: https://imgur.com/a/m1C3HvF
Around the top 200 Legend I was struggling and winrate dropped down to 50%, as the opponent quality increased, it's still fine to do 50% against good players tho, right?
I was also using the same deck for a 7-1 swiss record in Masters Qualifier to Seoul. (*Just for fun and practice and no intention to travel there, I won 10 packs!)
Mulligan Mulligan is not straigthforward, as you have a lot of early-game cards and combinations and you have to see how the cards you keep work together, in this deck you are likely keep several cards in your mulligan given you don't try to hard-mulligan for anything special. I will try to provide you with general tips.
General Mulligan Go by the general mulligan in every matchup unless specified otherwise. Always keep regardless matchup: Acornbearer, Keeper Stalldaris, Sn1p-Sn4p,*Wispering Woods (with coin or acornbearer), if you keep Wispering Woods be sure to keep 1 card to buff the wisps. Those cards will be specified in matchup guides only if you don't keep them. Keep against most decks ("Tier 2" keep list): Crystalizer, Dreamway Guardians.
Druid: Assume it's a mirror. Mulligan: Swipe, Crystalizer, Dreamway Guardians, if you already have solid minions keep Power of the Wild, if you already have 1-2 drops can keep Wrath (can protect Crystalizer from a 3:2 Panther, can handle Stalldaris, but not neccesary for much else). Strategy: Boardcontrol is everything, as the player winning the board is the one to benefit the many wide buff cards in the deck, you pretty-much trade everything in this matchup. If you struggle on board don't be shy using the buff cards for lower value than their potentional as if you lose board they only get weaker. if you run out of resources coming into turn 8 be sure to recognize it, can take riskier gameplans to prevent losing to The Forest's Aid.
Hunter: Assume it's a mech, but it can be midrange too. Mulligan: Nothing special requires a keep. Strategy (Mech): Boardcontrol is the main objective, trade everything - even the 0-2 bombs, to prevent magnetic upgrades. when game gets late you can more reliably ignore bombs (Especially if opponent played Flarkmaster), especially if you can't deal with all of them anyway, take the safer risk. Be alert for the opponent's burn plan, after taking the board be sure to play around Leeroy or suprising magnetic upgrades. the secondary win condition for the Mech Hunter is combining Missile Luncher with Venomizer to checkmate you out of the game. The tools to deal with this strategy, apart from killing him before he can get the cards or mana for it, are active deathrattles (Soul of the Forest, Sn1p-Sn4p),Druid of the Scythe, Wardruid Loti (And Savage Roar with it) and Wrath - if you won the board be sure to hold on to those cards/set-up the deathrattles. First thing to prevent this is not letting a high-health mech to stick around, as both are magnetic, so apart from the swing being bigger the minion could get out of kill range. Strategy (Midrange): Play around Unleash the hounds - better midsize minions over many small-size minions. If you are ok trading with Unleash be sure you don't lose to Scavenging Hyena added to them. Starting turn 6 expect the opponent to rush you with either a 5:5 Unleash the Beast or 4:6 Vicious Scalehide so you don't want to be too weak against that.
Mage: Assume it's Cyclone. Mulligan: Wispering Woods even without having the Coin/Acornbearer. Strategy: Apply pressure as early as possible, to either end the game or force them to compeletely deviate from their normal gameplan. If a giant sticks it could be checkmate, so take risks accordingly. They can hardly heal (just Zillax), so committing early Savage Roar can lead to Swipe + Hero Power lethal. If you have several board development options, consider playing around Sea Giant - just not much as scaring yourself of this card can lead to very suboptimal plays you have no time for. Preparing Stealth + Poison Loti can be a good play, but it is too expensive for mulligan keep. Be alert of any minion, as they can suddenly go Khadgar + Conjurer's Calling (Yea, even on 2 drops, even on 3 drops) and that could provide them with a contestment opportunity. They sometimes play Doomsayer so careful about using the Coin for a 2 drop.
Paladin: Assume it's Holy Wrath, can be Mech too. Mulligan: Wispering Woods even without having the Coin/Acornbearer, Wardruid Loti. Strategy (Holy Wrath): Apply solid Pressure while playing around their removals. Loti as Taunt is amazing in this matchup, as they can't contest it with minions. Strategy (Mech): Poison Loti is good to kill exactly the big mechs they try to get up. just flood the board and snowball early, they have no Consecration so they can't really do anything expect creating big mech(s), which is a complete tactical disadvantage for them as the Druid strategy of having multiple minions and buffing generates greater value.
Priest: ??? Mulligan: Wrath, Druid of the Scythe, Wardruid Loti, Power of the Wild. Don't keep Crystalizer. Strategy: Be sure to kill Northshrine Clerics and Acolyte of Pain without letting them benefit of the extra draw potentional they can offer.
Rogue: Assume it's Miracle, can be Pogo too. Mulligan: Wardruid Loti if they have the Coin. Strategy: As for the date of this guide, Miracle version doesn't run Fan of Knives - be sure to take advantage of that. If you recognize the opponent plays Pogo version be alert of Vanish. Wardruid Loti is good to have around in case the opponent makes an Edwin VanCleef play, however it is not effective to set-it up preamtively. solid card in other forms too if it wasn't required to counter Edwin.
Shaman: Assume it's Murloc/Overload aggro version, can be slow version or midrange version too. Mulligan: Wrath, Power of the Wild, Swipe. Strategy: Be alert of Underbelly Angler and Thunderhead and be sure to terminate them as early as they come to play. Let no murloc survive, as they have synergy cards. Keep in mind cards like Bloodlust and The Storm Bringer.
Warlock: Assume it's Zoo. Mulligan: Wrath, Swipe, Druid of the Scythe, Wardruid Loti. Strategy: Complete board-control game. it's good to have Rush around to take the Carpet down.
Warrior: Assume it's Bomb/Fatigue. Mulligan: The Forest's Aid. Don't keep Crystallizer. Strategy: Try to play around his removals and make boardstates that are difficult/expensive for him to remove. Starting on turn 4 you could be rushed by Millitia Commander so having a high-health low attack minion is not effective. Starting on turn 5 they could play Dyn-o-matic so be careful the option of this card swinging the board too difficult. if a mech sticks (Dyn-o-matic, Omega Devestator, Clockwerk Goblin) he could attach Zilliax and take a value trade, so it's safer to trade mechs. Don't be too scared of the Eternium Rover getting them some armor, just clear it and move on.
Matchups All matchups are either relatively close, or very much in your favor, so there's a good place to be optimistic. Warrior has to be the worse matchup, however not by far and you can still beat them many times. I have no idea who's favored when playing against Mage or Rogue, both decks are scary and yet got a weakness to aggression. Those 2 decks are difficult to play so if you'r playing below high legend they will not pose a threat as big. If you meet a lot of Hunters and Paladin - those are the matchups that you are especially excited about.
Specialist I will be providing general advices in this section, as I'm not certain myself. it will not include which cards to remove. 1: The deck can make a good primary deck as it is. can add Sea Giants to it to make the Secondary better. 2: You want to have anti-aggro list, and potentionally one you queue against rogue too. The most important thing is to add 2 Sea Giants. you might want to play the giants in the Primary to use the secondary for certain techs only. Additional cards that could added too: Zilliax, Hungry Crab, Batterhead, Mecharoo, Giggling Inventor. 3: The 3rd list can be used to add counters to one of the meta decks. That could be mage, by adding Big Game Hunters, Faerie Dragon and Crazed Alchemist. It could also be designed for warrior by adding cards such as Harrison Junes, Cairne Bloodhoof, Mojomaster Zihi.
Hearthpwn Arcticle https://www.hearthpwn.com/decks/1285614-token-druid-top8-qualifier-dumpster-to-highlegend

Gameplay, Questions and self-promotion You can watch hours of gameplay with me explaining my thoughts process in my Twitch channel, June 23-24. I was learning the deck myself throughout the stream, and you can expect minor card swaps through it. This is also the best place to ask me questions and get immidiate answers, however I'm still reading your comments here too.
www.twitch.tv/hatulhs
submitted by HatulHS to CompetitiveHS [link] [comments]


2019.06.10 05:35 stroke_bot trivirga shopkeeping warhorse

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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.05.03 13:56 sapsmartin Fertility Services Market Globally to 2025 Topmost Key Vendors: OvaScience, Care Fertility, Monash, Genea, Apollo, Carolinas, Medicover

Global Fertility Services Market - Analysis to 2025 is an expert compiled study which delivers a holistic perspective of the market covering current trends and prospective scope with regard to product/service the report also covers competitive analysis to understand the presence of key vendors in the businesses by analyzing their product/services, key financial facts, details SWOT analysis and vital development in the past few years. An additional chapter like Fertility Services industry landscape and competitive landscape provides the reader with recent company degree insights covering mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, collaborations, new product developments/strategies happening across the ecosystem. The Fertility Services Market Report also assess the vital vendors by mapping all of the relevant services and products to exhibit the status/ranking of top 5 important vendors.
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Market Classification Fertility Services Market, By Procedure, Estimates and Forecast, 2014-2025 ($Million) Surrogacy IUI IVF with ICSI IVF without ICSI Others Fertility Services Market, By Service, Estimates and Forecast, 2014-2025 ($Million) Frozen Non-Donor Egg and EmbryBanking Frozen Donor Fresh Non-Donor Fresh Donor Fertility Services Market, By End User, Estimates and Forecast, 2014-2025 ($Million) Clinical research institutes Fertility clinics Hospitals Surgical centres Fertility Services Market, By Key Players OvaScience Inc. The Johns Hopkins Health System Corp Care Fertility Group Monash IVF Group Genea Limited ApollHospitals Enterprise Ltd Carolinas Fertility Institute Medicover Group Xytex CryInternational Progyny Inc. Fertility Services Market
The report analyzes factors affecting market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the market in these regions.
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Read More :- https://peopleheraldtoday.com/2019/05/05/fertility-services-market-globally-to-2025-topmost-key-vendors-ovascience-care-fertility-monash-genea-apollo-carolinas-medicove
submitted by sapsmartin to u/sapsmartin [link] [comments]


2019.03.23 01:51 Adamish Comparison between Dell S2417DG and S2716DG - significant differences in picture quality

I've seen a number of threads asking about how to avoid colour banding issues on these Dell monitors, whether by revision, model, manufacturing date etc. There have been some very helpful threads, like this one by Heydaddy91
 
I briefly had access to 2x S2417DGs and 2x S2716DGs at the same time, so I took the chance to directly compare them. I didn’t have much time so apols for picture quality.
All monitors were the latest versions as of Feb 2019 – A05 for the 24”, A09 for the 27”. I also looked for picture differences within the same models (i.e. 24” vs. 24”; 27” vs. 27”) but didn’t find any, so the pictures below are reflective of what you can expect from each model.
 
Tests
1.) The Infamous Dawn Engine Picture
2.) Steam Flag
3.) Soupa Light
4.) Dark Souls Art
5.) Black Wallpaper
 
Uncalibrated results: 24” on the left, 27” on the right
1.) Dawn Engine – bad colour banding on both but drastically less on the 27”
2.) Steam Flag – better on 27” but not hugely
3.) Soupa Light – marked difference here, 27” has much less banding and warmer colours
4.) Dark Souls – another big win for 27” in all areas: clearer colours, solid blacks, less banding, no backlight bleed
5.) Black Wallpaper – both show red artifacts on default settings, but much less on the 27”
 
Calibrated results: 24” on the left, 27” on the right. Both calibrated with fairly standard profiles, and then adjusted via Nvidia Control Panel as the options within the monitor itself are very limited. These are fairly standard settings I found from other owners online, as well as the sort of the settings you need to get rid of the most egregious banding effects.
24” NCP colour settings: Brightness 40 / Contrast 58 / Gamma 0.68 / Vibrance 60
27” NCP colour settings: Brightness 47 / Contrast 50 / Gamma 0.80 / Vibrance 60
1.) Dawn Engine – both much better than the uncalibrated. It’s difficult to see in this photo but the banding on the 27” is much less harsh. You can also see the blue backlight bleed at the bottom on the 24”, which isn’t present on the 27”. I think my camera was a bit off in this pic as in real life the banding isn’t nearly as obvious after calibration/NCP: e.g. here’s a pic I took just now of the 27” – once adjusted it looks almost as good as my IPS screen
2.) Steam Flag – not much in it but the 27” has slightly stronger colours whilst all but eliminating the banding on the edges
3.) Soupa Light – similar performance here, the 24” again has slightly more washed-out colours, bands more towards the edge, and has backlight bleed
4.) Dark Souls – broadly similar, some difference in the quality of the smoke, e.g. to the left of the chest it blurs together on the 24” but has more subtle colour differences on the 27”. Heavy backlight bleed on the 24”. The black on the 27" is deeper.
5.) Black Wallpaper – I can’t seem to find the picture I took, but once calibrated both the 24” and 27” showed a solid black background so nothing to report here anyway
6.) Bonus test: Lagom Black Level Test – the test itself can be found here. It’s where you can really see the difference in quality between the 24” and 27”. As above, the 24” achieves similar, though slightly worse, picture quality once calibrated. But it does it by crushing the shit out of dark colours, such that only the last 6 boxes are visible. The 27”, on the other hand, gets a slightly better picture quality that effectively eliminates banding in games and movies, but with drastically less black crush – the last 13 boxes are still visible, along with the 14th if you lean in
 
When I first looked at the S2417DG, I was so confused by the reviews that said these Dells were a high quality, or even "IPS-like" TN panel. But now that I've seen the S2716DG I understand them more. After calibration, the A09 27" variant really does have good picture quality for a TN panel, and it's a clear improvement over the colour banding of both the 24" and of its own previous revisions. Add in 144Mhz, 1ms response time, G-Sync and the fact that it's cheaper than all its key competitors, and you've got yourself a solid choice of monitor.
 
TL;DR: As of February 2019, the latest 27” revision has less colour banding and warmer colours than the latest 24” revision, both out of the box and post-calibration. And it achieves this with far less black crush and without the backlight bleed of the 24”
Still TL;DR: Don’t buy the S2416DG, buy the S2716DG
submitted by Adamish to Monitors [link] [comments]


2019.01.24 20:08 AllIsVanity Empty tombs and "missing body" stories were an established literary theme in antiquity. Therefore, Christians can't claim the empty tomb of Jesus is a historical fact.

"The theme of empty tombs was a familiar one in the ancient world. Aristeas disappeared from his temporary place of entombment (the fuller's shop) and later appeared as a raven and as a phantom in Herodotus's version. He received the honor due the gods and sacrifices in other accounts. Cleomedes, presumably still alive, disappeared from the chest he had hidden in and was honored as a hero with sacrifices. Many years after his death, Numa's body had disappeared, although there is no evidence he underwent an apotheosis. Alcmene's body disappeared from her bier. Zalmoxis, by the artifice of living underground, appeared three years after people thought he had died. He promised his followers some kind of immortal life resembling either resurrection or metemsomatosis.....Although Romulus was not buried (in most traditions) his body disappeared, and he was honored as the god Quirinus after appearing to Julius Proculus. Callirhoe apparently died and her lover Chaereas discovered her empty tomb with the stones moved away from the entrance. Inside he found no corpse. He assumed she had been translated to the gods.....Philinnion disappeared from her tomb, walked the earth as a revenant, and her corpse was later found in her lover's bedroom. Lucian's Antigonus (in his Lover of Lies) asserts: 'For I know someone who rose twenty days after he was buried.' Proclus included three stories of Naumachius of Epirus who described three individuals that returned to life after various periods in their tombs (none months, fifteen days, and three days). They appeared either lying on their tombs or standing up. Polyidus raised Minos's son Glaucus from the dead after being placed in the son's tomb. The Ptolemaic-Roman temple in Dendera vividly depicts the bodily resurrection of Osiris in his tomb. There are numerous translation accounts of heroes in which their bodies disappear when they were either alive or dead, including: Achilles (in the Aethiopis), Aeneas, Amphiaraus (under the earth), Apollonius of Tyana, Basileia, Belus, Branchus, Bormus, Ganymede, Hamilcar, and Semiramus." - John Granger Cook, Empty Tomb, Resurrection, Apotheosis p. 598-599.
After describing the disappearance of Romulus, Plutarch comments that it was common for these types of "fables" to be applied to other heroes and deified figures.
"Now this is like the fables which the Greeks tell about Aristeas of Proconnesus and Cleomedes of Astypaleia. For they say that Aristeas died in a fuller's shop, and that when his friends came to fetch away his body, it had vanished out of sight; and presently certain travellers returning from abroad said they had met Aristeas journeying towards Croton. Cleomedes also, who was of gigantic strength and stature, of uncontrolled temper, and like a mad man, is said to have done many deeds of violence, and finally, in a school for boys, he smote with his fist the pillar which supported the roof, broke it in two, and brought down the house. The boys were killed, and Cleomedes, being pursued, took refuge in a great chest, closed the lid down, and held it so fast that many men with their united strength could not pull it up; but when they broke the chest to pieces, the man was not to be found, alive or dead. In their dismay, then, they sent messengers to consult the oracle at Delphi, and the Pythian priestess gave them this answer:—
"Last of the heroes he, Cleomedes, Astypalaean."
It is said also that the body of Alcmene disappeared, as they were carrying her forth for burial, and a stone was seen lying on the bier instead. In short, many such fables are told by writers who improbably ascribe divinity to the mortal features in human nature, as well as to the divine." - Parallel Lives, Life of Romulus 28:4-6
In addition to the "missing body" motif there was also the theme of post-mortem sightings of these individuals which can be compared with Mark's prediction in 16:7 - "There you will see him..."
"Appolonius asserts that after Aristeas's death in the fuller's shop, he was seen by many (Hist. mir. 2.1). Aeneas of Gaza remarks that he was seen 240 years after his death in Italy (Theophrastus 63-64 Colonna). Julius Proculus swore that Romulus 'appeared handsome and mighty' - (Plutarch Rom. 28.1). Philinnion's nurse saw her sitting next to her lover Machates (Phlegon De mir 1.1). Her tomb was empty at that point. Heroes such as the Dioscuri are 'seen by those who are in danger on the sea.' - (Isocrates Hel. enc. Or. 10,61. Leonynius used to say that he had seen Achilles on Leuke - (Pausanius 3.19.13). Maximus of Tyre claimed to 'have seen the Dioscuri, in the form of bright stars, righting a ship in a storm. I have seen Asclepius, and that not in a dream. I have seen Heracles, in waking reality.' (Maximus of Tyre Diss. 9.7). Celsus also attests the multitude of people who have seen and still see Asclepius (Origen Contra Celsus 3.24). Appolonius of Tyana told Damis that after his death, he would appear to him (Philostratus Vit. Apoll. 7.41). Appolonius's body disappeared, however, and only his soul was made immortal according to Philostratus. An old man claimed that he had recently seen Peregrinus in white clothing after his death (Lucian Peregrinus 40)." ibid, p. 600.
For sources, see the section entitled Empty Tombs with Subsequent Appearances.
An extremely interesting example is the Greek novel Callirhoe by Chariton which may date to before 62 CE due to a possible mention by Persius "To them I recommend the morning's play-bill and after lunch Callirhoe" - (1,134)
Just as in the gospels, in Chariton's story, there is "the sequence of dawn, visit to the grave, finding the stone removed, fear, inspection of the empty grave, disbelief, and again visit to the grave."
A Jewish "missing body" story followed by heavenly translation occurs in the Testament of Job 39:11-12 - "And they want to bury them, but I prevented them saving, do not labor in vain, for you will not find my children, because they have been taken up to heaven by their creator king."
Jesus simply fits the paradigm of other famous Jewish prophets who go missing.
Gen. 5:24 LXX "And Enoch was well-pleasing to God, and was not found, because God translated him."
Hebrews 11:5 "By faith Enoch was taken so that he did not experience death; and “he was not found, because God had taken him.”
Philo Questions and Answers on Genesis 1.86 'What is the meaning of the expression, "He was not found because God translated him?" (#Ge 5:24). In the first place, the end of virtuous and holy men is not death but a translation and migration, and an approach to some other place of abode.'
A search party is sent for Elijah in 2 Kings 2:16-17 but they do not find him. "And they sent fifty men, who searched for three days but did not find him."
Josephus Antiquities 9.28 "Now at this time it was that Elijah disappeared from among men, and no one knows of his death to this very day; but he left behind him his disciple Elisha, as we have formerly declared. And indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who was before the deluge, it is written in the sacred books that they disappeared, but so that nobody knew that they died."
On the disappearance of Moses - Josephus Antiquities 4.326 "and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God."
Credit to u/koine_lingua for the above references.
So it seems from the numerous examples we can gather that the "missing body" and "empty tomb" motif was a sign of divine intervention/favor and was a common element in apotheosis/translation fables. Hence, we can see why the creators of the Jesus stories would be motivated to invent such a tale. If Jesus was anything special, then surely his body would have to disappear from his tomb!
Of course we are all familiar with the Christian apologist's claim about the evidence of the empty tomb of Jesus. What evidence? Surely, a story about an empty tomb isn't enough by itself to qualify as evidence. Otherwise, you would have to believe all the above stories were evidence of their historicity as well!
Keep in mind, due to Matthew and Luke copying Mark's gospel (Markan priority) and the fact that John was written so late that the author likely had knowledge of the Markan narrative, there just is no confirmed independent testimony for the empty tomb of Jesus. All you have is a single shared story........about an empty tomb. As demonstrated, a story about x does not necessarily mean x is a historical fact.
Does anyone here dare challenge this? Can anyone give any good reasons why the empty tomb of Jesus should be considered a historical fact when all you have is the story itself? It seems to me, when arguing from a historical probability standpoint, due to "missing bodies" being an established literary motif, one can't give a probability higher than 0.5 to Jesus' empty tomb story being historical. It's just as likely that the gospels would be employing the theme as it is that they were reporting a historical fact. Thus, the story by itself cannot serve as evidence for its historicity.
submitted by AllIsVanity to DebateAChristian [link] [comments]


2019.01.18 23:10 kingofsol3 Xbox Gold Problems! Please Help!

A few weeks ago Microsoft had a promotion where if you buy 3 months of Xbox Gold you got 3 months free. I bought a 3 month subscription from Amazon and received a code for my paid for subscription as well as a code for the bonus 3 months.
I redeemed the codes online and the first code went in ok and I was credited with months. When I entered the second code the system froze. I tried again and of course it said "Code already redeemed". I called Microsoft to explain the problem. The first rep I talked to understood the problem and said he could see both the redeemed codes. His solution was to delete the three month subscription and replace it with a six month subscription. Sounded easy enough.
He deleted the three month but was unable to credit the six month subscription and had to get a supervisor. The supervisor said it was a known issue and it should be taken care of in 24 hours and they would credit me with an additional month for the inconvenience.
I waited two days and it still wasn't taken care of so I called in. The rep I spoke to said the issue had to be escalated further and that I would not be credited with the extra month for the inconvenience!
It's now been three weeks and the issue has not been resolved. They keep telling me that it is a known issue and they have to escalate it again. I just received another email saying: "We apolize about the delay in the resolution of this case. At the moment our Investigations Team is taking care of the issue but they haven´t provided us an estimated date to solve it."!
Has anyone else had a problem redeeming Xbox Gold? I can't believe that Microsoft can't get this seemingly simple problem solved.
Very Upset!
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2019.01.17 03:13 Junebugpwr Best friend married crazy

Recent lurker first time poster. I don't even know where to start with this. My best friend met, married, and moved away with his crazy wife (cw) all in under a year. We were close amd he had helped me through many times and was also a godfather or both of my children. My bf met a girl from a very Muslim country while she was on vacation in Noth America. Within a matter of three months he proposed and moved to another continent with her. It started off when I (26f married to m 31) messaged bf that when he gets back from foreign country we need a date. Cw took offense saying that should not be said of bf and it was inappropriate so I told her how date means a preplanned meeting of date and time between two people. Very innocent. Omg cw blew up after that! Long story short i was unfriended and blocked from all social media accounts and points of contact after I contacted bf sister on advice as to what to do in an effort to not make the situation any worse and still respect the different culture. It got back to cw and she didn't appreciate it and told me I was ruining her wedding. Basically how I was inappropriate, and she using her childhood and his past medical issues as excuses for behavior as well as moving to a new country and dealing with all of the errands. (background: I myself have moved to a new country at a young age with a newborn, bought a house, and got married all in one year so that did not impress me much.)I did at one point blame her for responding on bf behalf because any interactions did not sound like him. (turns out it was true but with his apparent consent). I apologized for how things made her feel and told her that I understood where she was coming from. I told cw I'm sorry for the drama, the timing for the misunderstanding sucks but I was not going to apolize for getting advice from a third party on what to do. I asked her when things calm down if we could talk again and start fresh. I wished cw luck with her upcoming wedding that we couldn't attend and that we send our love. When bf came back to the country to visit I went on an hour drive to get his favorite dessert, got their wedding gift as well as a present to her in attempts to clear the air. It did not work. I have never Recieved a thank you or any notice that the gesture or gift was recieved. Cw instead wanted to wait until she moved back to North America before talking so that it could be done in person. At this point I am tired of everything being on her terms her way without any regards to myself so I cease contact. Tonight I receive a text containing a photo with a birthday card purchased for bf years before their relationship was conceived. The card was a gag card calling him sexy which my dh wrote in and signed above my name. I was told by her it was inappropriate and inconsiderate and how she had tried to give me another chance but she keeps coming across things like this and old photos of us together. She told me she doesn't like the Facebook photos I have (ex model) and that I clearly don't have limits. How I act is not in her culture and.. Sorry but she's not trying to judge me. My response was that bf and I were close but I didn't hide anything about our friendship from anyone. I mentioned how the past doesn't always reflect the present and when they started dating I changed how I interacted with him. That she keeps saying she wants to give me a chance but makes up her mind on things with out any background or context. That I was sorry my photos made her uncomfortable but that I am who I am and I am comfortable with it. If she doesn't like it don't look. I continued by telling her that I am not from her culture and that she is judging me. Her response was that I made it so much easier and she is done with me. Which I looveeed! So in another long winded text to her I replied that her mind is made up and nothing I could do would change it anyhow. I was tired of being the bad guy and having to defend myself. I told cw that her opinion of me doesn't matter because I am secure in who I am and know that I am a good person. If she had n y insecurities with her relationship that is between her and bf because I am happily married with two kids. Sadly I was blocked before that last message went through so I forwarded to bf with an apology note for brining it to him but that I needed this to be said.
Am I crazy or wrong?
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2018.10.20 16:02 amusudan That one time I dropped the cake

It was Charles’ birthday. Our mother had baked him a cake and I had, in all my clumsiness, dropped it when I was asked to bring it over to his place.
Charles lived on the outskirts of town. I didn’t know my way around the area well enough to find a store to buy a replacement, so I grabbed my phone to look on Google maps. No signal.
Odd, but nothing I hadn’t seen before. My phone regularly acts up and it’s just my luck that it happened at the exact moment I needed it the most. I was busy restarting my phone when I was tapped on the shoulder by an older gentleman.
He smiled kindly, and asked “Is that your cake sweetheart?"
He was the sort of loveable grandpa you see in heartfelt-comedy movies. His smile was enchanting and I couldn’t help but smile back before, and after, replying “Yes it is, or was."
He walked up to the sweet corpse before resting his hand on my shoulder and saying “What a shame, what is the ocasion?"
“my friend is throwing a birthday party today."
He shook his head “That’s just too bad, strawberry is my favourite you know." he smiled again, and I immediatly felt at peace. “I have some sweetrolls left over, do you think your friend would like those?"
“He would love that." I was so happy to have met this man.
“Just follow me, I live just around the corner. What is your name honey? My name is Apol."
“I’m Grace."
“Nice to meet you, Grace."
He opened the door to his house and led me to his living room, where he insisted I would have tea with him. I didn’t object, I still had time and he was so nice. He went to put the water on the stove. I looked around the room, there was a picture of two small children on the wall, I felt like I knew them from somewhere. The door swung open and he was standing there with a great smile, he noticed what was looking at and told me all about what I then learned were his grandchildren.
After a few minutes of remeniscinent stories, I said “They sound really nice, you must love them a lot."
“Yes I’m very glad to have them in my life, they drop by every day after school to tell me about their day. Oh the water is boiling, I’ll go get the tea." He smiled at me and got up, resting one hand on his bad knee and mumbling something about forgetting his medication.
He took quite long, but I didn’t want to seem rude and ask him if it’s going to take much longer. Instead I grabbed an old newspaper that was lying on he couch next to me, and flipped through the pages. I was shocked to see the faces of the two children, Apol’s grandchildren. They had apparently gone missing.
I looked at the date and then it dawned on me, I knew these children already because this had happened months ago, I had seen the story on the news. The only suspect was an older man, an A. Lyon. The case was closed due to lack of evidence and the parents had commited suicide shortly afterwards.
This old man couldn’t have done that, he’s too nice. But why would he act like these children are his relatives? I decided I would just ask. Apol would be understanding, right? Wrong.
I opened the door to the entrance hall, but it had changed to a long, dark corridor that went on straight ahead for farther than I could see. The walls were lined with torches and a deep velvety red carpet was rolled out on the floor. There were suits of armour on the left side, each with a picture of a person opposite it.
Apol’s voice bellowed from no particular direction, like it was inside my head “Sorry I had to deceive you, Grace" Though he didn’t sound sorry. He no longer spoke like a calm old man but more like a feverish demon “It’s nothing personal Grace, we’re all equal in death!"
The door slammed shut behind me. I screamed “What are you going to do to me?"
There was no reply. Deep laughter rumbled from further down the hallway, slowly growing louder and louder. The walls shook, and the torches in the distance started going out one by one.
I panicked, who wouldn’t? I tried opening the door but it had fused with the wall. Then I started crying which only ade the demon laugh louder. “Why Apol, why!? God help me!"
The laughter stopped shortly before continuing twice as loud, and Apol replied filled with rage “This is my realm wench! I am not Apol, I am Apollyon, the Arch Fiend! There is no God here to help you, your soul is mine!"
I could now see the demon approaching in the short time before the torch he passed went out. A beast that was constantly changing form, beyond description. Evil incarnate, followed by a legion of damned souls, laughing hysterically. I looked to my right, the picture closest to me was now showing my face and the armour opposite to it was kneeling and holding up a blade.
I took the rapier from the armour’s hand, Apollyon scoffed “A fighter I see, let’s see if you fare better than the children!"
Everything was shaking, the pictureframes were falling from the walls. The transforming being of despair was close enough for me to smell it, the stench was awful. The laughing was now so loud that my eardrums nearly popped.
I knew I couldn’t win, so I did the only thing I could. I plunged myself on my blade.
The beast stopped in its tracks “You fool! Don’t you know what you’ve done?" The damned souls screeched and scattered, disappearing through the walls.
Apollyon roared and everything turned black as the corridor collapsed on us.
..
..
It was Charles’ birthday. Our mother had baked him a cake and I had, in all my clumsiness, dropped it when I was asked to bring it over to his place.
I was just trying to get my phone to cooperate when I was tapped on the shoulder by an old man who spoke in a deep, angry voice “Hello, Grace."
He didn’t seem very nice, must have been having a bad day. I replied, not unkindly “How do you know me, what do you need?"
He put on an evil smirk, and I swore I could hear laughing in the distance, “I have some sweetrolls for your friend Charles at my house. All I ask in return is to take your picture."
submitted by amusudan to nosleep [link] [comments]


2018.10.03 23:30 Break-The-Walls Debunking The 1914 Prophecy: The Coming Prince - Chapter 8

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15

"MESSIAH THE PRINCE"

JUST as we find that in certain circles people who are reputed pious are apt to be regarded with suspicion, so it would seem that any writings which claim Divine authority or sanction inevitably awaken distrust. But if the evangelists could gain the same fair hearing which profane historians command; if their statements were tested upon the same principles on which records of the past are judged by scholars, and evidence is weighed in our courts of justice, it would be accepted as a well-established fact of history that our Savior was born in Bethlehem, at a time when Cyrenius was Governor of Syria, and Herod was king in Jerusalem. The narrative of the first two chapters of St. Luke is not like an ordinary page of history which carries with it no pledge of accuracy save that which the general credit of the writer may afford. The evangelist is treating of facts of which he had "perfect understanding from the very first;" (Luke 1:3) in which, moreover, his personal interest was intense, and in respect of which a single glaring error would have prejudiced not only the value of his book, but the success of that cause to which his life was devoted, and with which his hopes of eternal happiness were identified.
The matter has been treated as though this reference to Cyrenius were but an incidental allusion, in respect of which an error would be of no importance; whereas, in fact, it would be absolutely vital. That the true Messiah must be born in Bethlehem was asserted by the Jew and conceded by the Christian: that the Nazarene was born in Bethlehem the Jew persistently denied. If even today he could disprove that fact, he would justify his unbelief; for if the Christ we worship was not by right of birth the heir to David's throne, He is not the Christ of prophecy. Christians soon forgot this when they had no longer to maintain their faith against the unbroken front of Judaism, but only to commend it to a heathen world. But it was not forgotten by the immediate successors of the apostles. Therefore it was that in writing to the Jews, Justin Martyr asserted with such emphasis that Christ was born during the taxing of Cyrenius, appealing to the lists of that census as to documents then extant and available for reference, to prove that though Joseph and Mary lived at Nazareth, they went up to Bethlehem to be enrolled, and that thus it came to pass the Child was born in the royal city, and not in the despised Galilean village. [1]
And these facts of the pedigree and birth of the Nazarene afforded almost the only ground upon which issue could be joined, where one side maintained, and the other side denied, that His Divine character and mission were established by transcendental proofs. None could question that His acts were more than human, but blindness and hate could ascribe them to Satanic power; and the sublime utterances which in every succeeding age have commanded the admiration of millions, even of those who have refused to them the deeper homage of their faith, had no charm for men thus prejudiced. But these statements about the taxing which brought the Virgin Mother up to Bethlehem, dealt with plain facts which required no moral fitness to appreciate them. That in such a matter a writer like St. Luke could be in error is utterly improbable, but that the error would remain unchallenged is absolutely incredible; and we find Justin Martyr, writing nearly a hundred years after the evangelist, appealing to the fact as one which was unquestionable. It may, therefore, be accepted as one of the most certain of the really certain things of history, that the first taxing of Cyrenius was made before the death of Herod, and that while it was proceeding Christ was born in Bethlehem.
Not many years ago this statement would have been received either with ridicule or indignation. The evangelist's mention of Cyrenius appeared to be a hopeless anachronism; as, according to undoubted history, the period of his governorship and the date of his "taxing" were nine or ten years later than the nativity. Gloated over by Strauss and others of his tribe, and dismissed by writers unnumbered either as an enigma or an error, the passage has in recent years been vindicated and explained by the labors of Dr. Zumpt of Berlin.
By a strange chance there is a break in the history of this period, for the seven or eight years beginning B.C. 4. [2] The list of the governors of Syria, therefore, fails us, and for the same interval P. Sulpicius Quirinus, the Cyrenius of the Greeks, disappears from history. But by a series of separate investigations and arguments, all of them independent of Scripture, Dr. Zumpt has established that Quirinus was twice governor of the province, and that his first term of office dated from the latter part of B.C. 4, when he succeeded Quinctilius Varus. The unanimity with which this conclusion has been accepted renders it unnecessary to discuss the matter here. But one remark respecting it may not be out of place. The grounds of Dr. Zumpt's conclusions may be aptly described as a chain of circumstantial evidence, and his critics are agreed that the result is reasonably certain. [3] To make that certainty absolute, nothing is wanting but the positive testimony of some historian of repute. If, for example, one of the lost fragments of the history of Dion Cassius were brought to light, containing the mention of Quirinus as governing the province during the last months of Herod's reign, the fact would be deemed as certain as that Augustus was emperor of Rome. A Christian writer may be pardoned if he attaches equal weight to the testimony of St. Luke. It will, therefore, be here assumed as absolutely certain that the birth of Christ took place at some date not earlier than the autumn of B.C. 4. [4]
The dictum of our English chronologer, than whom none more eminent or trustworthy can be appealed to, is a sufficient guarantee that this conclusion is consistent with everything that erudition can bring to bear upon the point. Fynes Clinton sums up his discussion of the matter thus. "The nativity was not more than about eighteen months before the death of Herod, nor less than five or six. The death of Herod was either in the spring of B.C. 4, or the spring of B.C. 3. The earliest possible date then for the nativity is the autumn of B.C. 6 (U. C. 748), eighteen months before the death of Herod in B.C. 4. The latest will be the of B.C. 4 (U. C. 750), about six months before his death, assumed to be in spring B.C. 3." [5] This opinion has weight, not only because of the writer's eminence as a chronologist, but also because his own view as to the actual date of the birth of Christ would have led him to narrow still more the limits within which it must have occurred, if his sense of fairness had permitted him to do so. Moreover, Clinton wrote in ignorance of what Zumpt has since brought to light respecting the census of Quirinus. The introduction of this new element into the consideration of the question, enables us with absolute confidence, adopting Clinton's dictum, to assign the death of Herod to the month Adar of B.C. 3, and the nativity to the autumn of B.C. 4.
That the least uncertainty should prevail respecting the time of an event of such transcendent interest to mankind is a fact of strange significance. But whatever doubt there may be as to the birth-date of the Son of God, it is due to no omission in the sacred page if equal doubt be felt as to the epoch of His ministry on earth. There is not in the whole of Scripture a more definite chronological statement than that contained in the opening verses of the third chapter of St. Luke. "In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness."
Now the date of Tiberius Caesar's reign is known with absolute accuracy; and his fifteenth year, reckoned from his accession, began on the 19th August, A.D. 28. And further, it is also known that during that year, so reckoned, each of the personages named in the passage, actually held the position there assigned to him. Here then, it might be supposed, no difficulty or question could arise. But the evangelist goes on to speak of the beginning of the ministry of the Lord Himself, and he mentions that "He was about thirty years of age when He began." [6] This statement, taken in connection with the date commonly assigned to the nativity, has been supposed to require that "the fifteenth year of Tiberius" shall be understood as referring, not to the epoch of his reign, but to an earlier date, when history testifies that certain powers were conferred on him during the two last years of Augustus. All such hypotheses, however, "are open to one overwhelming objection, viz., that the reign of Tiberius, as beginning from 19th August, A.D. 14, was as well known a date in the time of Luke, as the reign of Queen Victoria is in our own day; and no single case has ever been, or can be, produced, in which the years of Tiberius were reckoned in any other manner." [7]
Nor is there any inconsistency whatever between these statements of St. Luke and the date of the nativity (as fixed by the evangelist himself, under Cyrenius, in the autumn of B.C. 4; for the Lord's ministry, dating from the autumn of A.D. 28, may in fact have begun before His thirty-first year expired, and cannot have been later than a few months beyond it. The expression "about thirty years implies some such margin. [8] As therefore it is wholly unnecessary, it becomes wholly unjustifiable, to put a forced and special meaning on the evangelist's words; and by the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar he must have intended what all the world would assume he meant, namely, the year beginning 19th August, A.D. 28. And thus, passing out of the region of argument and controversy, we reach at last a well-ascertained date of vital importance in this inquiry.
The first Passover of the Lord's public ministry on earth is thus definitely fixed by the Gospel narrative itself, as in Nisan A.D. 29. And we are thus enabled to fix 32 A.D. as the year of the crucifixion. [9]
This is opposed, no doubt, to the traditions embodied in the spurious Acta Pilati so often quoted in this controversy, and in the writings of certain of the fathers, by whom the fifteenth year of Tiberius was held to be itself the date of the death of Christ; "by some, because they confounded the date of the baptism with the date of the Passion; by others, because they supposed both to have happened in one year; by others, because they transcribed from their predecessors without examination." [10]
An imposing array of names can be cited in support of any year from A.D. 29 to A.D. 33; but such testimony is of force only so long as no better can be found. Just as a seemingly perfect chain of circumstantial evidence crumbles before the testimony of a single witness of undoubted veracity and worth, and the united voice of half a county will not support a prescriptive right, if it be opposed to a single sheet of parchment, so the cumulative traditions of the Church, even if they were as definite and clear as in fact they are contradictory and vague, would not outweigh the proofs to which appeal has here been made.
One point more, however, claims attention. Numerous writers, some of them eminent, have discussed this question as though nothing more were needed in fixing the date of the Passion than to find a year, within certain limits, in which the paschal moon was full upon a Friday. But this betrays strange forgetfulness of the intricacies of the problem. True it is that if the system by which today the Jewish year is settled had been in force eighteen centuries ago, the whole controversy might turn upon the week date of the Passover in a given year; but on account of our ignorance of the embolismal system then in use, no weight whatever can be attached to it. [11] While the Jewish year was the old lunisolar year of 360 days, it is not improbable they adjusted it, as for centuries they had probably been accustomed to do in Egypt, by adding annually the "complimentary days" of which Herodotus speaks. [12] But it is not to be supposed that when they adopted the present form of year, they continued to correct the calendar in so primitive a manner. Their use of the metonic cycle for this purpose is comparatively modern. [13] And it is probable that with the lunar year they obtained also under the Seleucidae the old eight years' cycle for its adjustment. The fact that this cycle was in use among the early Christians for their paschal calculations, [14] raises a presumption that it was borrowed from the Jews; but we have no certain knowledge upon the subject.
Indeed, the only thing reasonably certain upon the matter is that the Passover did not fall upon the days assigned to it by writers whose calculations respecting it are made with strict astronomical accuracy, [15] for the Mishna affords the clearest proof that the beginning of the month was not determined by the true new moon, but by the first appearance of her disc; and though in a climate like that of Palestine this would seldom be delayed by causes which would operate in murkier latitudes, it doubtless sometimes happened "that neither sun nor stars for many days appeared." [16] These considerations justify the statement that in any year whatever the 15th Nisan may have fallen on a Friday. [17]
For example, in A.D. 32, the date of the true new moon, by which the Passover was regulated, was the night (10h 57m) of the 29th March. The ostensible date of the 1st Nisan, therefore, according to the phases, was the 31st March. It may have been delayed, however, till the 1st April; and in that case the 15th Nisan should apparently have fallen on Tuesday the 15th April. But the calendar may have been further disturbed by intercalation. According to the scheme of the eight years' cycle, the embolismal month was inserted in the third, sixth, and eighth years, and an examination of the calendars from A.D. 22 to A D. 45 will show that A.D. 32 was the third year of such a cycle. As, therefore, the difference between the solar year and the lunar is 11 days, it would amount in three years to 33 3/4 days, and the intercalation of a thirteenth month (Ve-adar) of thirty days would leave an epact still remaining of 3 3/4 days; and the "ecclesiastical moon" being that much before the real moon, the feast day would have fallen on the Friday (11th April), exactly as the narrative of the Gospels requires. [18]
This, moreover, would explain what, notwithstanding all the poetry indulged in about the groves and grottoes of Gethsemane, remains still a difficulty. Judas needed neither torch nor lantern to enable him to track his Master through the darkest shades and recesses of the garden, nor was it, seemingly, until he had fulfilled his base and guilty mission that the: crowd pressed in to seize their victim. And no traitor need have been suborned by the Sanhedrin to betray to them at midnight the object of their hate, were it not that they dared not take Him save by stealth. [19] Every torch and lamp increased the risk of rousing the sleeping millions around them, for that night all Judah was gathered to the capital to keep the Paschal feast. [20] If, then, the full moon were high above Jerusalem, no other light were needed to speed them on their guilty errand; but if, on the other hand, the Paschal moon were only ten or eleven days old upon that Thursday night, she would certainly have been low on the horizon, if she had not actually set, before they ventured forth. These suggestions are not made to confirm the proof already offered of the year date of the death of Christ, but merely to show how easy it is to answer objections which at first sight might seem fatal. CHAPTER 8 FOOTNOTES
[1] Bethlehem, "in which Jesus Christ was born, as you may also learn from the lists of the taxing which was made in the time of Cyrenius, the first Governor of yours in Judea." — Apol., 1., § 34.
"We assert Christ to have been born a hundred and fifty years ago, under Cyrenius." — Ibid., § 46.
"But when there was an enrollment in Judea, which was then made first under Cyrenius, he went up from Nazareth, where he lived, to Bethlehem, of which place he was, to be enrolled," etc. — Dial. Trypho, § 78.
[2] Josephus here leaves a gap in his narrative; and through the loss of MSS., the history of Dion Cassius, the other authority for this period, is not available to supply the omission.
[3] Dr. Zumpt's labors in this matter were first made public in a Latin treatise which appeared in 1854. More recently he has published them in his Das Geburtsjahr Christi (Leipzig, 1869). The English reader will find a summary of his arguments in Dean Alford's Greek Test. (Note on Luke 2:1), and in his article, on Cyrenius in Smith's Bible Dict.; he describes them as "very striking and satisfactory." Dr. Farrar remarks, "Zumpt has, with incredible industry and research, all but established in this matter the accuracy of St. Luke, by proving the extreme probability that Quirinus was twice governor of Syria" (Life of Christ, vol. 1. p. 7, note). See also an article in the Quarterly Review for April 1871, which describes Zumpt's conclusions as "very nearly certain," "all but certain." The question is discussed also in Wieseler's Chron. Syn. (Venables's trans.) In his Roman history, Mr. Merivale adopts these results unreservedly. He says (vol. 4., p. 457), "A remarkable light has been thrown upon the point by the demonstration, as it seems to be, of Augustus Zumpt in his second volume of Commentationes Epigraphicae, that Quirinus (the Cyrenius of St. Luke 2.) was first governor of Syria from the close of A. U. 750 (B. C. 4), to A. U. 753 (B. C. l)."
[4] The birth of our Lord is placed in B. C. 1, by Pearson and Hug; B. C. 2, by Scaliger; B. C. 3, by Baronius, Calvisius, Suskind, and Paulus; B. C. 4, by Lamy, Bengel, Anger, Wieseler, and Greswell; B. C. 5, by Usher and Petavius; B. C. 7, by Ideler and Sanclementi (Smith's Bible Dict., "Jesus Christ," p. 1075). It should be added that Zumpt's date for the nativity is fixed on independent grounds in B. C. 7. Following Ideler, he concludes that the conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn, which occurred in that year, was the "Star" which led the Magi to Palestine.
[5] Fasti Romani, A. D. 29.
[6] Luke 3:23. Such is the right rendering of the verse. The Revised Version renders it: " And Jesus Himself, when He began to teach, was about thirty years of age."
[7] Lewin, Fasti Sacri, p. 53. Diss., chap. 6: The joint-principate theory of the reign of Tiberius, elaborately argued for by Greswell, is essential with writers like him, who assign the crucifixion to A. D 29 or 30. Sanclementi, indeed, finding "that nowhere in histories, or on monuments, or coins, is a vestige to be found of any such mode of reckoning the years of this emperor," disposes of the difficulty by taking the date in Luke 3:1 to refer, not to John the Baptist's ministry, but to Christ's death. Browne adopts this in a modified form, recognizing that the hypothesis above referred to "falls under fatal objections." He remarks that "it is improbable to the last degree" that Luke, who wrote specially for a Roman officer, and generally for Gentiles, would have so expressed himself as to be certainly misunderstood by them. Therefore, though the statement of the evangelist clashes with his conclusion as to the date of the Passion, he owns his obligation to accept it. See Ordo Saec., §§ 71 and 95.
[8] As Dean Alford puts it (Gr. Test., in loco): "This hosei tpiakonta admits of considerable latitude, but only in one direction, viz., over thirty years."
[9] "It seems to me absolutely certain that our Lord's ministry lasted for some period above three years" (Pusey, Daniel, p. 176, and see p. 177, note 7). This opinion is now held so universally, that it is no longer necessary to set forth in detail the grounds on which it rests; indeed, recent writers generally assume without proof that the ministry included four Passovers. The most satisfactory discussion of the question which I know of is in Hengstenberg's Christology (Arnold's trans., §§ 755-765). St. John mentions expressly three Passovers at which the Lord was present; and if the feast of John 5:1 be a Passover, the question is at an end. It is now generally admitted that that feast was either Purim or Passover, and Hengstenberg's proofs in favor of the latter are overwhelming. The feast of Purim had no Divine sanction. It was instituted by the decree of Esther, Queen of Persia, in the 13th year of Xerxes (B. C. 473), and it was rather a social and political than a religious feast, the service in the synagogue being quite secondary to the excessive eating and drinking which marked the day. It is doubtful whether our Lord would have observed such a feast at all; but that, contrary to the usual practice, He would have specially gone up to Jerusalem to celebrate it, is altogether incredible.
[10] Clinton's Fasti Rom., A. D. 29.
[11] "The month began at the phases of the moon…and this happens, according to Newton, when the moon is eighteen hours old. Therefore the fourteenth Nisan might commence when the moon was 13d. 18h. old, and wanted 1d. oh. 22m. to the full. [The age of the moon at the full will be 14d. 18h. 22M.] But sometimes the phases was delayed till the moon was 1d. 17h. old; and then if the first Nisan were deferred till the phases, the fourteenth would begin only 1h. 22m. before the full. This precision, however, in adjusting the month to the moon did not exist in practice. The Jews, like other nations who adopted a lunar year, and supplied the defect by an intercalary month, failed in obtaining complete accuracy. We know not what their method of calculation was at the time of the Christian era" (Fasti Rom., vol. 2., p. 240); A. D. 30 is the only year between 28 and 33 in which the phases of the full moon was on a Friday. In A. D. 29 the full moon was on Saturday, and the phases on Monday. (See Wurm's Table, in Wiesler's Chron. Syn., Venables's trans., p. 407).
[12] Herod. 2:4.
[13] It was about A. D. 360 that the Jews adopted the metonic cycle of nineteen years for the adjustment of their calendar. Before that time they used a cycle of eighty-four years, which was evidently the calippic period of seventy-six years with a Greek octaeteris added. This is said by certain writers to have been in use at the time of our Lord, but the statement is very doubtful. It appears to rest on the testimony of the later Rabbins. Julius Africanus, on the other hand, states in his Chronography that "the Jews insert three intercalary months every eight years." For a description of the modern Jewish calendar see Encyc. Brit. (9th ed., vol. 5., p. 714).
[14] Browne, Ordo saec., § 424
[15] See ex. gr. Browne Ordo saec., § 64. He avers that "if in a given year the paschal moon was at the full at any instant between sunset of a Thursday and sunset of a Friday, the day included between the two sunsets was the 15th Nisan; "and on this ground he maintains that A. D. 29 is the only possible date of the crucifixion. As his own table shows, however, no possible year (i. e., no year between 28 and 33) satisfies this requirement; for the paschal full moon in A. D. 29 was on Saturday the 16th April, not on Friday the 18th March. This view is maintained also by Ferguson and others. It may be accounted for, perhaps, by the fact that till recent years the Mishna was not translated into English.
[16] Acts 27:20. Treatise Rosh Hashanah of the Mishna deals with the mode in which, in the days of the "second temple," the feast of the new moon was regulated. The evidence of two competent witnesses was required by the Sanhedrin to the fact that they had seen the moon, and the numerous rules laid down for the journey and examination of these witnesses prove that not unfrequently they came from a distance. Indeed, the case of their being "a day and a night on the road" is provided for (ch. i., § 9). The proclamation by the Sanhedrin, therefore, may have been sometimes delayed till a day or even two after the phases, and sometimes the phases was delayed till the moon was 1d. 17h. old [Clinton, Fasti Rom., vol. 2., p. 240]; so that the 1st Nisan may have fallen several days later than the true new moon. Possibly, moreover, it may have been still further delayed by the operation of rules such as those of the modern Jewish calendar for preventing certain festivals from falling on incompatible days. It appears from the Mishna ("Pesachim") that the present rules for this purpose were not in force; but yet there may have been similar rules in operation.
[17] See Fasli Rom., vol. 2., p. 240, as to the impossibility of determining in what years the Passover fell on Friday.
[18] The following is the scheme of the octaeteris: "The solar year has a length of 365 & 1/4 days; 12 lunar months make 354 days. The difference, which is called the epact or epagomene, is 11 & 1/4 days. This is the epact of the first year. Hence the epact of the second year = 22 & 1/2 days; of the third, 33 & 3/4. These 33 & 3/4 days make one lunar month of 30 days, which is added to the third lunar year as an intercalary or thirteenth month (embolismos), and a remainder or epact of 3 3/4 days. Hence the epact of the fourth year =11 & 1/4 + 3 & 3/4=15 days; that of the fifth year =26 & 1/4; of the sixth, 37 & 1/2, which gives a second embolism of 30 days with an epact of 7 & 1/2. The epact, therefore, of the seventh year is 18 & 3/4, and of the eighth =18 & 3/4 + 11 & 1/4= just 30, which is the third embolism with no epact remaining." — BROWNE, Ordo Saec., § 424. The days of the Paschal full moon in the years A. D. 22-37 were as follows; the embolismal years, according to the octaeteris, being marked "E":A. D22 ... 5th April23 ... 25th March24 ... 12th April25 ... 1st April26 ... 21st March27E ... 9th April28 ... 29th March29E ... 17th April30 ... 6th April31 ... 27th March32E ... 14th April33 ... 3rd April34 ... 23rd March35E ... 11th April36 ... 30th March37E ... 18th April**[19]** Luke 22: 2-6
[20] Josephus testifies that an "innumerable multitude" came together for the feast (Ant., 17., 9, § 3); and he computes that at a Passover before the siege of Jerusalem upwards of 2, 700, 200 persons actually partook of the Paschal Supper, besides the foreigners present in the city (Wars, 6., 9, § 3).
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